Example
First Steps  ETCSL  1st Flood Story ever written  2nd Flood Story ever written  SS   MC   EEW  Parent
            Writer                      Period             Origin         Year                          Topic                       1      2      3      4      5      6      7      8      9      10   CategoryChoose
Overview13.82 billionA long time ago13.82 billion

As far as the eye can see

IIHdfMWIMWPlanBBBBBBBMAN 
Overview13.82 billionA long time ago13.82 billion2013 - Hubble - Extreme Deep FieldIIIIIIIIIBMAN 
Overview13.82 billionFact13.82 billion1 2 3 4IElePartIIPforIIFLTSMbIFPIBMAN 
OverviewTodayResearchToday2014 - The Cosmic WebIIIIIIBMAN 
OverviewTodayResearchToday

2014 - How our universe grew up

IIIIIIIIIBMAN 
OverviewTodayResearchToday

2014 - Confirmed:
Oldest Fragment of Early Earth
is 4.4 Billion Years Old

IIIIIIBMAN 
OverviewTodayResearchToday2014 - Scientists ‘freeze’ light for an entire minuteIIIBMAN 
OverviewTodayResearchToday

2014 - Astronomers discover
water vapor around dwarf planet Ceres

IIIIIIIBMAN 
OverviewTodayResearchToday

2014 - US Scientists
Have Created
An Entirely New Lifeform
With Artificial DNA

IIIIIIIIBMAN 
OverviewTodayResearchToday

2014 - Scientists film how
the brain makes
memories for the
first time ever

IIIIIBMAN 
OverviewTodayResearchToday

2014 - Humans And Squid Evolved
Completely Separately
- For Millions Of Years —
But Still Ended Up
With The Same Eyes

IIIIBMAN 
OverviewTodayResearchToday

2014 - Neanderthals gave
us disease genes

BMAN 
OverviewTodayResearchToday

2014 - Brutish and short?
DNA 'switch' sheds light on Neanderthals

IIIIBMAN 
OverviewTodayResearchTodayToday - 6 Biggest Unsolved Math ProblemsIIIIIIIIIIBMAN 
Overview2.2 billionSouth Africa2.2 billion

Diskagma buttonii
The first land creatures?

IIIIIIIIIIDNAB 
Overview0.5 BillionEarth0.5 Billion2012 - Worms and BrainsIIIIIIHM1HM2CDNAB 
OverviewMillionsAfricaMillions

-- What's in a Name? --

IIIIIII5CivilFHSTLINE 
Overview7.0 millionAfrica7.0 million

Divergence

HSIIIIHFTIAIA&EHFBRW 
Overview7.0 millionAfrica7.0 million

Millions of Years before Modern Humans
Human Ancestors - In Pictures

HFTIIIIIHSAIA&EHFBRW 
Overview7.0 millionChad7.0 millionOldest Human Ancestor - Sahelanthropus tchadensisFossIIIIIIEGAIHFTBRW 
Overview7.0 millionChad7.0 million

Memo:
The Complete
Human Fossil Record
Read in conjunction with link to the right

HFTIHFHFSTIIBRW 
Overview4.5 millionAfrica4.5 millionNarratives about early Human AncestorsHSOriIHPEvolvIIAIIBRW 
Overview4.5 millionAfrica4.5 million2009 - Ardipithecus RamidusFossIIIIIIAIIHFTBRW 
OverviewDNA:

Who's Who?
Chromosomes - Genes - DNA

Cells contain Chromosomes
Chromosomes contain Genes
Genes contain DNA

IIChromoGeneDNADNAvsIICHM1DNAA 
OverviewDNA:

Chromosome 2
Chimp 24 vs Human 23

IIIIIIIIHM2HM1DNAA 
OverviewDNA:When did DNA start?SoupIIIBeginIIDNAsCHM1DNAA 
OverviewDNA:

2012:
Did DNA Exist Before Life Began on Earth?
New Study Suggests Yes

IIWikiDNAOofLIIIIHM1DNAA 
OverviewDNA:

Memo:
What is a Haplogroup?

(1) - Mitochondrial DNA haplogroup
(from your mother)

(2) - Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup
(from your father)

IIIIIITimeLineHMapVanishedHM1DNAA 
Overview142000 BPDNA:142000 BP

Memo:
Origin - Africa

Human Y-chromosome Haplogroup - CT M168

The ancestor of everyone
living outside of Africa

FTDNAYCACT-M168HGrpDNA-HGIIIIYTreeDNAA 
Overview2.6 myaAfrica2.6 mya - 10000 BC

The Paleolithic
Oldowan / Lower (Early) / Middle / Upper

ON4IIIHM1HumanBRW 
Overview2.0 myaTanzania2.0 mya

Finding Hominini -> Hominina
Where to look?
Olduvai Formation - Tanzania

IIIIIIIIIIBRW 
Overview1.9 millionSouth Africa1.9 million2010 - Malapa Cave - (Australopithecus sediba)IIIIIIEGAIHFTCBRW 
Overview1.9 millionSouth Africa1.9 millionMalapa Cave - continuedIIIEGAIHFTCBRW 
Overview1.8 millionGeo Timelines1.8 million

Quaternary Period  thru  Holocene Epoch->    YOU  

IIIIIIIIIIBRW 
Overview1.8 millionDmanisi, Georgia1.8 million

Memo:
2013
A Complete Skull
from Dmanisi, Georgia,
and the Evolutionary
Biology of Early Homo

ARD1ARDbARD3ARD2HawksIPNASMapIIBRW 
OverviewTriassicWorldHoloceneList of Fossil SitesIIIIIIIHFTCBRW 
Overview1.75 millionAfrica1.75 millionWhen did Human Speech Evolve?EGAIHFTCBRW 
Overview800000 BCTanzania800000 BC

Before Mitochondrial Eve        Venus    

IIIIAMHSTBRW 
Overview400000 BCSpain400000 BC

2014
Denisovans
New Hominina Ancestor
'Pit of Bones' Yields Oldest Known Human DNA

IHumanIIFWTWJHSimaIIIDENCaveD 
Overview400000 BCSiberia400000 BC

2010
Denisovans
New Hominina Ancestor

IIIIIIIIIDENCaveD 
Overview400000 BCSiberia400000 BCcontinued - DenisovansISASA2IIIIICDENCaveD 
Overview400000 BCSiberia400000 BCcontinued - DenisovansIIIIIIIIHM1DENCaveD 
Overview400000 BCSiberia400000 BCcontinued - DenisovansIIIIIIIIHSLDENCaveD 
Overview200000 BCEast Africa200000 BC

2013 - Mitochondrial Eve     Mommy!  

MEIIDT200INotesNovaWEveIHM2CaveE 
Overview200000 BCEast Africa200000 BC

continued - Mitochondrial Eve

A&ENaturemtDNASmtDNAmrCAIIHM1HSLL3aCaveE 
Overview200000 BCEast Africa200000 BC

continued - Mitochondrial Eve

ArabiaDienekesJHAGGMatIIEveCL3aCaveE 
Overview200000 BCAfrica200000 BC

A new kid
on the block
The Homo Sapiens Group

A&EEvolSkulHFIIIIFHSEGCHMAN 
Overview200000 BCAfrica200000 BCThe Evolution of Homo sapiensHFTFatHertMIHert2IAIICEGHMAN 
Overview200000 BCAfrica200000 BC

-- Before your parents were born --

HM1HM2HM3ON4TLAMHCII5CivilFHSTLINE 
Overview195000 BCEthiopia195000 BC

2005 - Omo Kibish Formation    1st modern man? 

IIIIIOmo MapIICHM2CaveOK 
Overview195000 BCEthiopia195000 BCcontinued - Omo KibishIIIIIIHM1Hert1CHSLCaveOK 
Overview170000 BCSouth Africa170000 BCBorder CaveIIIIIIIHM3CHSLCave 
Overview170000 BCSouth Africa170000 BCcontinued - Border CaveIIIIHM2HM1HM3Hert1CHSLCave 
Overview160000 BCAfrica160000 BC

The Spread of Homo Sapiens (see maps)
See Dienkes' Retire Article
If correct, the maps on
this link may be incorrect.

RetireIM168ImtDNA-L3-aImtDNA-L3-bDNA-HGIHM1Cave 
Overview160000 BCMorooco160000 BC

2011 - Jebel Irhoud Man   1st modern man?

Dienkes' ModelHomoRemIIIIIIHert1HM1CaveJI 
Overview160000 BCEthiopia160000 BC

2003 - Herto Man   1st modern man?
Homo sapiens idaltu

Hert2IHertMHomoRemHert1IIIHM2HM1CaveHE 
Overview160000 BCEthiopia160000 BCcontinued - HertoHSIIMIGAusMIIIHSLHert1HM1CaveHE 
Overview338000 BCWestern Cameroon338000 BC

Earliest
African American Man
dates back 338,000 Years

IIIIIHEcYCHert1HM2HM1Cave 
Overview142000 BPCameroon142000 BP

Memo:

All of us ......

We don't have a handle on
the age of Y-chromosomal Modern Man

The current 2 studies to be mindful of are
Karafet et al. 2008
Cruciani et al. 2011
There are other studies that I am ignoring
(But you don't have to)

This web site will use 142000 BP as the
starting age of Y-chromosomal modern man

In a nutshell - this guy is the:
FIRST ANCIENT WRITER

Of course, the first actual writers that could write:
See Spot Run!
will not appear and figure it out
until 27/2600 BC in IRAQ

Today, we call these first actual
ANCIENT WRITERS
the Sumerians

FTDNAD-142bpHGrpYCIITMRCAICRUCKaraCaveHU 
Overview142000 BPCameroon142000 BP

2011 - The father of us all?   142 thousand years ago  

CRUCCRUC1Kara1IIYCIIIICaveHU 
Overview142000 BPCameroon142000 BP

2011 - The father of us all?   142 thousand years ago  

A&EYCHGrpCT-M168SONGHM3CHert1HM2HM1CaveHU 
Overview130000 BCSudan130000 BCSinga HominidIIHomoRemIIHM3CHert1HM2HM1Cave 
Overview130000 BCSudan130000 BCcontinued - Singa HominidIIIIIIHM3Hert1HM2HM1Cave 
Overview125000 BCUnited Arab Emirates125000 BC

2011 - Jebel Faya   1st man out of Africa?

IDienkes' ModelIIIHEcHSLCHM2HM1CaveJF 
Overview125000 BCUnited Arab Emirates125000 BCcontinued - Jebel FayaIIIIIIHEcHSLHM1HM2CaveJF 
Overview125000 BCUnited Arab Emirates125000 BCcontinued - Jebel FayaIIIJBIHEcHSLHM3HM2HM1CaveJF 
Overview125000 BCSouth Africa125000 BCKlasies RiverIIIIIIIIHSLHM1Cave 
Overview106000 BPOman - Dhofar Mtns106000 BP

2011
Oman Man
1st man out of Africa?

OMANOMANOMANLostNubianIIHSLHM2HM1CaveOMAN 
Overview100000 BCSouth Africa100000 BCBlombos - (paint kits)IIIIIIIHSLHM2HM1Cave 
Overview100000 BCSouth Africa100000 BCSibuduIIIIIIIHSLHM2HM1Cave 
Overview100000 BCAfrica100000 BC

-- Fully Modern Humans --

M168M168-aSTsciIFHSHM3HM1TLINE 
Overview2.6 mya - 10000 BCEarth2.6 mya - 10000 BC -- Chronological Terms -- EpipalaeolithicINeolithicASPROChalcolithicBronze AgeIron AgeFHSIHM2Chrono 
Overview90000 - 10000 BCVarious90000 - 10000 BC

Upper Paleolithic Era

What follows is a guess:

It was in this era that
CT-M168 evolved from

Haplogroup B
which itself evolved from

Haplogroup A

Haplogroup A emerged 142,000 years ago (a guess)

In the next 100 years we will probably come
very close to the actual evoluntionary chronology

For the present, this thorny issue is the stuff
of Great Book Reports.

M168ION4HJpILect2ARTART1ICaveM168 
Overview80000 BCMorocco80000 BCTaforaltIIIIIIIIHSL4UPCave 
Overview74000 BCSumatra74000 BC

Toba Volcanic Eruption

IIIIIIHSLHM1HM2VOLRED 
Overview68500 BCAfrica68500 BC

-- Honey, I'm home -- See footnotes

HM3CGlobeHEovHEHEcIION4ONUPTLINE 
Overview68500 BCAfrica68500 BC

Human Origins
Y-chromosomal - SNP mutation
M168

EA4OofA3IISTsciISOGGcISOGGHM3HM1FHSTLINE 
Overview68500 BCAfrica68500 BC

continued
Y-chromosomal - SNP mutation
M168

IIMigrationsHM3HM1FHSTLINE 
Overview68500 BCVarious68500 BC -- Human Migration -- HM1HM2HM3HM4L3aL3bL3cL3dOofA1OofA2TLINE 
Overview68500 BCAfrica68500 BC

SNP M168      Don't miss this - a great read  

YCANatureISOGG-2014FHSNSIHM1HM2CCaveM168 
Overview68500 BCAfrica68500 BC

Haplogroup CT and SNP M168      YOU  

EuroAdamScozzM168ISOGGIEuroHapIIIICaveM168 
Overview68500 BCAfrica68500 BC

Y-Line DNA Haplogroups    List  

M168ICRUC1IIIIHM1HM2CCaveM168 
Overview? BCAfrica? BC

Maps
Out of Africa

Caution:

Some maps portray a migratory Coastal Route
along the coastline of Asia leading to Austrailia

Dienkes (for one)
disagrees with this hypothesis

See his comments a
couple of rows below

IIJBIArabiaHM2HM1ICHert1OOA 
Overview? BCAfrica? BCHow did modern humans leave Africa?OofA1AsiaOMANIIIIIIIOOA 
Overview? BCAfrica? BCcontinued - How did modern humans leave Africa?OofA1JBIIIIIIIIOOA 
Overview? BCAfrica? BC

Out of Africa
Can we retire the 60,000-year old coastal Out of Africa?

IIIIOOA 
Overview? BCAfrica? BC2012 - Out of Africa - thru Egypt?IIIIIIIIIHFOOA 
Overview? BCAfrica? BC2013 - Out of Africa - thru Egypt?Ksar AkilIIIOOA 
Overview? BCAfrica? BC2013 - Out of Africa - thru Arabia?OofA2IIArabiaIIIIIOOA 
Overview68500 BCAfrica68500 BC

First Steps  
  Internal Web Page  

OOA 
Overview60000 BCSouth Africa60000 BC

Diepkloof Rock Shelter

IIBBCSciMAGDRSmapISignsHSLHM2HM1SIGNS 
Overview58000 - 44000 BCIsrael58000 BC

Kebara Cave
Nethanderthals

beginning in 18000 BC
Anatomically Modern Humans (AMH)
live there and develop what we call today
The Kebaran Culture

KebaraNSNEdnaNeandertalWikiIKebaraTLAMHCavesHM2CCave 
Overview58000 - 44000 BCIsrael58000 BCcontinued - Kebara CaveIIIJHNeanHSLHM1TLAMHCavesHM2CCave 
Overview55000 BCEgypt55000 BC

Taramsa Hill      Modern Human Skelton(?)   

IIIIIIAOMHHM2HM1FHSKhat 
Overview48000 BCAfrica48000 BC2000 - 50,000 years ago and a 150 peopleIIIIIIAOMHHM2HM1FHSHMAN 
Overview48000 BCAfrica48000 BCcontinuedIIIIIIIHM1FHSHMAN 
Overview48000 BCAfrica48000 BC

2012 - Septermber
'junk DNA' ain't 'Junk'

IIIIHEcHM2FHSHMAN 
Overview48000 BCAfrica48000 BC

2013 - December
A 2nd DNA code
has been discovered

2nd DNA Code2nd DNA CodeIIHEcHM2FHSHMAN 
Overview47000 BCIsrael47000 BC

Boker Tachtit, Israel
One of man's first stops
after he left Africa

We do not have skeltal remains

We do no know the direct route
Anatomically modern humans (AMH)
took out of Africa

IIIIIIIIIISTEPS 
Overview46000 BCLebanon46000 BC

Kasar Akil, Lebanon
One of man's first stops
after he left Africa

We DO HAVE limited skeltal remains

We do no know the direct route
Anatomically modern humans (AMH)
took out of Africa

Ksar AkilIIIIIIIIISTEPS 
Overview44000 BCTurkey44000 BC

Üçagizli Cave I, Turkey
One of man's first stops
after he left Africa

We do not have skeltal remains

We do no know the direct route
Anatomically modern humans (AMH)
took out of Africa

IIIIIIIIIISTEPS 
Overview61000 - 44000 BCLaos61000 - 44000 BC

2012
Laos
Oldest human skull

SkullIIIIPNASLaosAIHM1FHSHMAN 
Overview42000 BCItaly42000 BC

Uluzzian Culture        First Modern European?    
Cave - Grotta del Cavallo

IIIIIIIHM1ISTULUZZIAN 
Overview42000 BCItaly42000 BCcontinued - Uluzzian CultureIIIIIIIIULUZZIAN 
Overview42000 BCItaly42000 BC

continued        rightmost - Early Cultures    

IIIIHM1CPHSLECSTULUZZIAN130 
Overview40000 BCGermany40000 BCHohle FelsIIIIIIIIHM24UPCave 
Overview40000 BCGermany40000 BC

Feldhofer Cave
Neandertal Location
DNA recovered in 2009

NEdnaIIIIIIIHM24UPCave 
Overview40000 BCGermany40000 BC

Hohle Fels Images        Venus    

IIUKhfIIIIIHM1HMapCave_Img 
Overview38800 BCSpain38800 BCEl Castillo - (earliest cave paintings)IICPIIIIII4UPCave 
Overview38800 BCSpain38800 BCEl Castillo ImagesIIIIIIIHSLHM1CCave_Img 
Overview35500 BCAustralia35500 BCGabarnmung - (oldest axe)IIIIIIIHEcHM2Cave 
Overview35500 BCAustralia35500 BCGabarnmung ImagesIIIIIIIIHSLHM1Cave_Img 
Overview35000 BCSpain35000 BCAltamiraIIIIIIICPHM2HMapCave 
Overview35000 BCSpain35000 BC

Altamira Images       move over Rembrandt   

IIIIIIIHEcHM1HMapCave_Img 
Overview34800 BCFrance34800 BCChauvetIIIIIIIICPHSLCave 
Overview34800 BCFrance34800 BC

Chauvet Images       move over Rembrandt   

IIIIIIIIHMapHM1Cave_Img 
Overview34000 BCRomania34000 BC2003 - Pestera cu Oase - (earliest euro human fossil?)IIIIIIIIIHSLCave 
Overview33000 BCEgypt33000 BC

Nazlet Khater Man       Modern Human Skelton(?)   

IIIIIIIIHEcHSLKhat 
Overview33000 BCEgypt33000 BCcontinued - Nazlet Khater ManIIIIIIIHM2Hert1HSLKhat 
Overview33000 BCEgypt33000 BCNazlet Khater #3 on the MapOMANIIIHEcHM2Hert1HSLKhat 
Overview33000 BCGermany33000 BCVogleherdIIIIIIIIHM1HSLCave 
Overview33000 BCGermany33000 BC

Vogleherd Images        Mammoth    

IIIIIUKhrIIHM1HSLCave_Img 
Overview32000 BCItaly32000 BCFumaneIIIIIIIIHM1HSLCave 
Overview32000 BCItaly32000 BCFumane ImagesIIIIIIIIHM2HSLCave_Img 
Overview27000 BCGreece27000 BCFranchthiIIIIIIGTLHEcHM2HSLCave 
Overview27000 BCFranchthi27000 BCFranchthi ImagesIIIIIIIIHM1HSLCave_Img 
Overview26000 BCEarth26000 BC

Last Glacial Maximum

IIIIIHEcHM2HSLBLACKBIG 
Overview24000 BCAustria24000 BCWillendorfIIIIIIHEcHM2HSLCave 
Overview24000 BCAustria24000 BC

Willendorf Images        Venus    

IUKwIIIIIHM1HSLCave_Img 
Overview23000 BCFrance23000 BCBrassempouyIIIIIANHM1HSLCave 
Overview23000 BCFrance23000 BC

Brassempouy Images        Venus    

IIIUKbIIIHM1HSLCave_Img 
Overview21000 BCSiberia21000 BCMalta - BuretIIIIIIIIIHSLCave 
Overview21000 BCSiberia21000 BC

Buret Images        Venus    

UKmIIIIIIIIHSLCave_Img 
Overview18000 BCChina18000 BCXianrendongIIIIIHEcHM1HSLCave 
Overview18000 BCChina18000 BC

Xianrendong Images        Earliest Pottery    

IIIIIHEcHM1Cave_Img 
Overview7.5 myaAfrica7.5 mya

-- Divergence --

HoListON44.5BIIIITLINE 
OverviewVariousVariousVarious -- Notable Timelines -- Hert1STECHSLCPNSHMapGTL4UPSATLINE 
Overview2.6 - 1.4 myaOldowan Era2.6 - 1.4 mya -- Oldowan Era -- ILPIHPMapIIHM1HM2CHMapTLINE 
Overview2.5 myaStone Age11000 BC

-- Timeline of Stone Age --

HPMapPaleLPHM1HM2CHMapTLINE 
Overview1.4 myaEarly Paleolithic1.4 mya -- Early Paleolithic (EP) -- ILPHM1HM2CHMapTLINE 
Overview300000 - 30000 BCMiddle Paleolithic300000 BC -- Middle Paleolithic (MP) -- ILPIHM1HM2CHMapTLINE 
Overview128000 - 10000 BCMiddle/
Upper Paleolithic
128000 BC

Key Sites for the
Middle and Upper Palaeolithic
of the Mediterranean
and Western Eurasia

SADRSTL-15BCIIFHSHM1HM2CHMapTLINE 
Overview90000 - 10000 BCUpper Paleolithic90000 BC -- Upper Paleolithic (UP) -- PaleILPIIHM1HM2CHMapTLINE 
Overview60000 BCUpper Paleolithic60000 BC -- Eurasian Adam -- EA3EA4EA5EA6EA7TLINE 
Overview18000 BCUpper Palaeolithic18000 BC -- Upper/Neolithic/Metal -- HM1HM2CHMapTLINE 
Overview12500 BCUpper Paleolithic12500 BC -- University of ArizonaWikiIHM1HM2CHMapTLINE 
Overview12500 - 8400 BCProto-Neolithic12500 BC -- Early Natufian -- Late NatNatufianIIHM1HM2CHMapTLINE 
Overview8300 - 8000 BCNeolithic8300 BC -- Neolithic Era -- IIIHBlogNR-HJHM1HM2CHMapTLINE 
Overview8300 - 8000 BCNeolithic8300 BC

Detailed Chronology
Neolithic to Early Bronze Age

IIINR-HJHM1HM2CHMapTLINE 
Overview8000 BCNear East8000 BC

Relative Chronology
of the Ancient Near East

Anatolia,
Northern Mesopotamia,
Southern Mesopotamia,
and Egypt

HM1HM2CHMapTLINE 
Overview8000 BCVarious8000 BC

-- Greek Timeline --

TroyIIAuthorsAuthors+IIMythsMesoBabylonTLINE 
Overview8000 BCVarious8000 BC

-- Egyptian Timeline --

IIIIIIIIITLINE 
Overview6500 BCNear East6500 BC -- Southern/Northern Mesopotamia -- { Condor }ICirclesHM1HM2CHMapTLINE 
Overview6000 BCNear East6000 BC

Egypt,
Near East,
Israel/Palestine,
and Bible
Chronological Outline

HM1HM2CHMapTLINE 
Overview18000 - 10000 BCThe Levant18000 BC

Kebaran Culture
This is the time period
that the
Mesopotamain Chronology
web page begins

IOswegoIIIIIHOLDRSSTKebaran 
Overview18000 - 10000 BCThe Levant18000 BCcontinuedIIIIIIHOLARSDRSSTKebaran130 
Overview18000 - 10000 BCThe Levant18000 BCcontinuedIIIIIIHOLARSDRSSTKebaran130 
Overview18000 - 10000 BCThe Levant18000 BCKebaran - BlogsSEMETICIranNahal HaderaIINatufianJ1ESearchDRSSTKebaran130 
Overview18000 - 10000 BCThe Levant18000 BCKebaran Culture M35IIIIIIJ1ETLAMHDRSSTKebaran130 
Overview18000 - 10000 BCThe Levant18000 BCImagesIIIIIJ1ETLAMHIARSSTKebaran130 
Overview18000 - 10000 BCThe Levant18000 BC

Kebaran Culture        MC    

J1ETLAMHECNSSASTKebaran130 
Overview? BCAfrica? BCHuman DNA - Mitochondrial - WomenIIIIIIDNA 
Overview? BCAfrica? BCHuman DNA - Y Chromosomal - ManIISOGGTimeLineHGrpE-M215GlossE1b1bEuroHapYTreeE-SNPDNA 
Overview17000 BCFrance17000 BCLascauxIIIIICPAURIHEcHM2Cave 
Overview17000 BCFrance17000 BCLascaux ImagesIIIIIIHEcHM1Cave_Img 
Overview14000 BCSpain14000 BCAbauntz - (oldest map?)IIIIIIIHEcHM2Cave 
Overview11000 BCIsrael11000 BCTel MozaIIIIIIICavesHM1Cave 
Overview11000 - 7800 BCNigeria11000 - 7800 BC

Non-modern humans
Iwo Eleru rock shelter

IIIIIIIICave 
Overview11000 - 7800 BCThe Levant11000 BCNatufian CultureIIIIIIIIJerTLDRSNatufians 
Overview11000 - 7800 BCThe Levant11000 BCcontinuedIIIINATUARIARSECSTNatufians130 
Overview11000 - 7800 BCThe Levant11000 BCImagesIIIIIIIIARSSTNatufians130 
Overview18000 - 7800 BCThe Levant11000 BCMulti Era ArtIIIIIARSCPECSTNatufians130 
Overview11000 - 7000 BCTurkey11000 BCMaps and TimelineIANTMIIIIIISANEO1TLINE 
Overview11000 - 7000 BCNear East11000 BCTimelineIIIIFHSNSINR-ChiSANEO1TLINE 
Overview11000 - 7000 BCNear East11000 BCcontinuedDCIIIFHSNSNR-ChiSANEO1TLINE 
Overview11000 - 7000 BCNear East11000 BCThe Transition To AgricultureIIIIEgyptIPigMatchesINEO1TLINE 
Overview11000 - 7000 BCNear East11000 BCHuman BurialsIIIIIIFHSDCSANEO1TLINE 
Overview11000 - 7000 BCNear East11000 BCDNAIIIIIDCSANEO1TLINE 
Overview11000 - 8500 BCSyria11000 BCTell Abu Hureyra - (farming)VillageIWikiNo960AGGAHTestPPNAETLMeso1TLMesoEarly_Tells 
Overview11000 - 8500 BCSyria11000 BCcontinuedIObsidianOriginsOwenDepaulISizeITLMeso1TLMesoEarly_Tells 
Overview11000 BCNear East11000 BC

     Proto-Neolithic     

Late NatINR-ChiNR-HWNR-HJFoodProdLect2DCNSPROTONEO 
Overview11000 BCSyria11000 BCCereals - Rye/Wheat/BarleyIIEvolLect3FounderTurkeyIICyprusWNPROTONEO 
Overview11000 BCSyria11000 BCcontinued - CerealsLect2DomesticIIIPROTONEO 
Overview10650 - 9650 BCSyria10650 BCTell Qaramel - (Round Tower)NR-HJIIIIINEO1Early_Tells 
Overview10650 - 9650 BCSyria10650 BCcontinuedIDCNEO1Early_Tells 
Overview10650 - 9650 BCSyria10650 BCMystery of the 6 TowersDCNEO1Early_Tells 
Overview10650 - 9650 BCSyria10650 BCMystery of the 6 Towers - UpdateDCNEO1Early_Tells 
Overview2.6 millionEarth10000 BC -- Chronological Terms -- IIINeolithicASPROChalcolithicBronze AgeIron AgeFHSHM2Terms 
Overview10000 BCTurkey10000 BCGöbekli TepeIIIIIIIIITLM4TurkeyA 
Overview10000 BCTurkey10000 BCcontinuedIIIIIIWk10Wk11ITLM4Turkey110 
Overview10000 BCTurkey10000 BCNot a Religious Site?IIIIWk10Wk11ITLM4Turkey110 
Overview10000 BCTurkey10000 BCImagesIIIIIIWk10Wk11ITLM4TurkeyA 
Overview1475 ADItaly1564 AD-- Michelangelo - (11,500 years later) --IIIIIIIIIISidebar 
Overview10000 BCTurkey10000 BCImagesIIIIIIIWk10ITLM4Turkey110 
Overview10000 BCTurkey10000 BCImagesIIIIIIWk10ITLM4Turkey110 
Overview9500 BCIsrael9500 BCJericho - (Tell-es-Sultan)SizePPNAOwenAGGDomFarmCIWHNR-ChiJerTLEarly_Tells 
Overview9500 BCIsrael9500 BCcontinuedSkullsSkullsJ5-SkullspbsSkullsOldIICitiesNR-ChiJerTLEarly_Tells 
Overview9000 BCNear East9000 BCAnimal DomesticationMilkIGoatAnimalsIDomesticIIIIPROTONEO 
Overview9000 ? - 3000 BC ?Near East9000 ? - 3000 BC ?

PIE
Proto-Indo-European language
Overview

The Issue:

Where/When/How
did 1 language
become the

ANCESTOR LANGUAGE

to all the languages
in Europe?

IIIIPIE 
Overview9000 ? - 3000 BC ?Near East9000 ? - 3000 BC ?

PIE
Proto-Indo-European language
Overview

The Issue:

Where/When/How
did 1 language
become the

ANCESTOR LANGUAGE

to all the languages
in Europe?

PIE LangBranchesISatemDispersalIndoMapEnglishEnglish 2WavesIPIE 
Overview9000 ? - 3000 BC ?Near East9000 ? - 3000 BC ?

PIE
Proto-Indo-European language
Overview

The Issue:

Where/When/How
did 1 language
become the

ANCESTOR LANGUAGE

to all the languages
in Europe?

IIIIIIIIIIPIE 
Overview9000 ? - 3000 BC ?Near East9000 ? - 3000 BC ?

PIE
2012
Remco Bouckaert (and others)

Mapping the Origins and Expansion of
the Indo-European Language Family

Rem2Rem3Rem4JHPIEWiredRGrayDLoadG&ARespVanishedPIE 
Overview9000 ? - 3000 BC ?Near East9000 ? - 3000 BC ?

PIE
2012
Asya Pereltsvaig

The Malformed Language Tree of
Bouckaert and His Colleagues

Martin Lewis

Mismodeling Indo-European
Origin and Expansion

LewisPoserHolmRem1Rem2Rem3G&ARespIIPIE 
Overview9000 ? - 3000 BC ?Near East9000 ? - 3000 BC ?

PIE
2012
Russell Gray and Quentin Atkinson

Language-tree divergence
times support the
Anatolian theory
of Indo-European origin

IIIEahIG&A3PIE 
Overview9000 ? - 3000 BC ?Near East9000 ? - 3000 BC ?

PIE
2010
Václav Blažek

On the internal classification
of Indo-European languages:Survey

PIE 
Overview9000 ? - 3000 BC ?Near East9000 ? - 3000 BC ?

PIE
2010
Axel Kristinsson

Indo-European Expansion Cycles
Cucuteni-Tripolye (CT) culture

PIE 
Overview9000 ? - 3000 BC ?Near East9000 ? - 3000 BC ?

PIE
2007
Maurizio Serva and Filippo Petroni

Indo-European languages tree
by Levenshtein distance

PIE 
Overview9000 ? - 3000 BC ?Near East9000 ? - 3000 BC ?

PIE
2003
Russell Gray and Quentin Atkinson

Language-tree divergence
times support the Anatolian
theory of Indo-European origin

GAFullG&A1G&A2IWiredG&ARespIEahPIE 
Overview9000 ? - 3000 BC ?Near East9000 ? - 3000 BC ?

PIE
2003
Bill Poser and others

Disagree with Russell Gray and
Quentin Atkinson findings

LiberG&ARespPIE 
Overview9000 ? - 3000 BC ?Near East9000 ? - 3000 BC ?

PIE
April, 2011
Dienekes' Anthropology Blog
Proto Indo European
Language Event

G&A3G&ARespLewisMPWpieNATreeWahPIE 
Overview9000 ? - 3000 BC ?Near East9000 ? - 3000 BC ?

PIE
Proto Indo European
Language Families

IIIINATreePIE 
Overview9000 ? - 3000 BC ?Near East9000 ? - 3000 BC ?

PIE
Proto-Indo-European
Various Hypotheses

WuhWkhWahWarhWbhIEctIEindexPIE DNATreePIE 
Overview9000 ? - 3000 BC ?Near East9000 ? - 3000 BC ?Kurgan hypothesis
PIE Urheimat hypotheses #1
HJkhahIEkuIEku45IEindexIEmpWuhIWpiePIE DNATreePIE 
Overview9000 ? - 3000 BC ?Near East9000 ? - 3000 BC ?Anatolian Hypothesis
PIE Urheimat hypotheses #2
HJkhahIEahIEindexIEmpWuhWpiePIE DNATreePIE 
Overview9000 ? - 3000 BC ?Near East9000 ? - 3000 BC ?Baltic Hypothesis
PIE Urheimat hypotheses #3
WbhIIIEindexIEmpWuhWpiePIE DNATreePIE 
Overview9000 ? - 3000 BC ?Near East9000 ? - 3000 BC ?Armenian Hypothesis
PIE Urheimat hypotheses #4
IEarhIEalIIEindexIEmpWuhIWpiePIE DNATreePIE 
Overview9000 ? - 3000 BC ?Near East9000 ? - 3000 BC ?The Paleolithic Continuity TheoryHJctIEctIIIIWpiePIE DNATreePIE 
Overview9000 ? - 3000 BC ?Near East9000 ? - 3000 BC ?

PIE
IE Chronology
Caution:May be outdated by
newer genetic studies

IIIIIDCNSSANEO1WpiePIE 
Overview9000 ? - 3000 BC ?Near East9000 ? - 3000 BC ?

PIE
No Neolithic Near East
DNA in European Neolithic People

IIIIIIJHPIESEMETICN1TreePIE 
Overview9000 ? - 3000 BC ?Near East9000 ? - 3000 BC ?The English LanguageWpiePIE 
Overview8300 - 8000 BCNear East8300 - 8000 BC

     The Neolithic Revolution     

NR-ChiIUARWk9Wk10Wk11IIDCNSNEOR 
Overview8300 - 8000 BCNear East8300 - 8000 BCcontinued - TNR - 1NR-HWNR-HJLect2NR-ChiISONGSONGSONGNEOR 
Overview8300 - 8000 BCNear East8300 - 8000 BCcontinued - TNRNR-CHALIIIINSNEOR 
Overview8300 - 8000 BCNear East8300 - 8000 BCcontinued - TNRIIIIINSNEOR 
Overview8300 - 8000 BCNear East8300 - 8000 BCcontinued - TNRIIINSNEOR 
Overview8300 - 8000 BCNear East8300 - 8000 BCcontinued - TNRNeolithicTLM5NSNEOR 
Overview8300 - 8000 BCTurkey8300 - 8000 BC

Farming      See Dropdown  

1st FarmerFarm13FarmHuenPIEPIEdbIINSSANEO1NEOR 
Overview8000 BCEurope8000 BC

Eye of newt,
and toe of frog,

Wool of bat,
and tongue of dog,
.....

Double, double
toil and trouble;

DienekesIIEuroGenesFWTWIIAdmixtureADMIX 
Overview8000 BCTurkey8000 BCFarming1st FarmerIFarmFarmPIIIIIIPROTONEO 
Overview8000 BCMesopotamia8000 BC

Tokens Invented

MathIIIIIINSSANEO1SIGNS 
Overview8000 BCMesopotamia8000 BC

Tokens Continued

IIIIIIINSSANEO1SIGNS 
Overview7500 BCTurkey7500 BCÇatal HöyükIIIIIIIWk10ITLM4TurkeyA 
Overview7500 BCTurkey7500 BCcontinuedIIIINR-HJIWk10Wk11ITLM4Turkey110 
Overview7300 BCJordan7300 BCAin GhazalIIIIIINR-HJFIGSTL-15BCTLMesoEarly_Tells 
Overview7300 BCJordan7300 BCcontinuedIIIIITL-15BCTLMeso1TLMesoEarly_Tells 
Overview7100 BCIndia7100 BCLost City - India - Gulf of Khambhat (Cambay)IIIINR-HJITL-15BCTLMeso1TLMesoEarly_Tells 
OverviewWorldQUIZ -- Learn the questionsIIIIIIITestIIQuiz 
OverviewWorldRadio Carbon DatingIIIIIIIHEcHM1RCD 
Overview7090 - 3200 BCMesopotamia7090 BCpre-SumerianHWIIIIIIITLMeso1TLMesoPRESumer 
Overview7090 - 3200 BCMesopotamia7090 BCcontinuedIWk11Wk12IITL-15BCTLMeso1TLMesoPRESumer 
Overview7090 - 4950 BCMesopotamia7090 BCThe Jarmo SettlementIIIIII7090 BCTL-15BCTLMeso1TLMesoPRESumer 
Overview7090 - 4950 BCMesopotamia7090 BCcontinuedTLM5III7090 BCWk12TL-15BCTLMeso1TLMesoPRESumer 
Overview7000 BCSaudi Arabia7000 BCDomestication of Horses - Al-MagarIIIIIINR-ChiCitiesJerTLEarly_Tells 
Overview6600 - 6200 BCChina6600 BC

Jiahu writing

IIIIIIIIIISIGNS 
Overview6500 - 5250 BCMesopotamia6500 BCHassuna CultureIIIIIITLM5Wk11TLMeso1TLM4Hassuna 
Overview6500 - 5000 BCMesopotamia6500 BCSamarra CultureIII7090 BCIIIITLMeso1TLM4Samarra 
Overview6500 - 5000 BCMesopotamia6500 BCImagesIIIITLM5TLMeso1TLM4Samarra 
Overview6000 - 4600 BCMesopotamia6000 BCHalaf CultureIIIIITLM5IITLMeso1TLM4Halaf 
Overview6000 - 4600 BCMesopotamia6000 BCcontinuedIIIIIWk11TL-15BCTLMeso1TLM4Halaf110 
Overview6000 - 4600 BCMesopotamia6000 BCcontinuedIIIWk12Wk11TL-15BCTLMeso1TLM4Halaf110 
Overview6000 - 4200 BCMesopotamia6000 BCUbaid PeriodIIIIIIITLMeso1ITLM4Ubaid 
Overview6000 - 4200 BCMesopotamia6000 BCcontinuedIIWk12INR-HJITLMeso1IITLM4Ubaid110 
Overview6000 - 4200 BCMesopotamia6000 BCcontinuedIIIIIIITLMeso1ITLM4Ubaid110 
Overview6000 - 4200 BCMesopotamia6000 BCImagesIIIIIIIIIIUbaid110 
Overview5500 BCRomania5500 BC

Tartaria Tablets

ISIGNS 
Overview5500 BCSerbia5500 BC

Vinca Culture

IIIIIIIIISIGNS 
Overview5500 - 4200 BCSyria5500 BCTell Zaidan - (Ubaid Period)IIIIIITLMeso1ITLM4Ubaid110 
Overview5500 - 4200 BCSyria5500 BCImagesIIIIIITLMeso1ITLM4Ubaid110 
Overview5500 - 3000 BCNear East5500 BCStart of Chalcolithic Age - (Copper Age) IIIIINR-CHALIIIIMetal_B 
Overview5400 BCSumer5400 BCEridu Founded - (one of the world's first cities)IIIIIIIBLACKBIG 
Overview5400 - 2334 BCSumer 5400 BCPrimary GodsIIIIIIIIIIPCM 
Overview5400 - 2334 BCSumer 5400 BCcontinued - Primary GodsIIIIIIIIPCM 
Overview5400 - 2334 BCSumer 5400 BCcontinued - Primary GodsIIIIIIIIIIPCM 
Overview12500 - 7000 BCNeolithic12500 BC-- Timeline Library - (Proto-Neolithic -1-) ONUPIINSIITL-15BCTLM2TLM1HWTLINE 
Overview11000 - 7000 BCNeolithic11000 BC-- Timeline Library - (Proto-Neolithic -2-) 4UPNEO1SAITL-15BCTL-15BCTLM2TLM1HWTLINE 
Overview9000 BCNeolithic9000 BC-- Timeline Library - (Neolithic -1-) IIIITL-15BCTLM2TLM1HWTLINE 
Overview8200 BCNeolithic8200 BC-- Timeline Library - (Neolithic -2-) TL-15BCIIIITL-15BCTLM2TLM1HWTLINE 
Overview6500 - 2004 BCMesopotamia6500 BC-- Timeline Library - (Mesopotamia -XX-) TLINE 
Overview6500 - 2004 BCMesopotamia6500 BC-- Timeline Library - (Mesopotamia -1-) ITLMeso1IITLM5TLM4TLM3TLM2TLM1HWTLINE 
Overview6000 - 2004 BCMesopotamia6000 BC-- Timeline Library - (Mesopotamia -2-) I3rdIISCTLM3TLM2TLM1HWTLINE 
Overview5300 - 2004 BCMesopotamia5300 BC-- Timeline Library - (Mesopotamia -3-) IIIIWk12TLM3TLM2TLM1HWTLINE 
Overview5300 - 2004 BCMesopotamia5000 BC-- Timeline Library - (Mesopotamia -4-) ITLMesoISCWk12TLM3TLM2TLM1HWTLINE 
Overview5300 - 2004 BCMesopotamia5000 BC-- Timeline Library - (Mesopotamia -5-) IITLM1HWTLINE 
Overview5000 - 1595 BCSumer5000 BC-- Timeline Library - (Sumer -1-) 3rdIIIIIITLM2TLM1HWTLINE 
Overview5000 - 1595 BCSumer5000 BC-- Timeline Library - (Sumer -2-) ITLMesoIIISCTLM2TLM1HWTLINE 
Overview3300 - 1200 BCMetal Production3300 BC-- Timeline Library - (Metal) IIIBAIISCTLM2TLM1HWTLINE 
Overview3100 BC - 1 AD5 Cultures3100 BC-- Timeline Library - (5 Cultures) IIIIIISCTLM2TLM1HWTLINE 
Overview3000 - 500 BCVarious3000 BC-- Timeline Library - (Best) ITL-15BCNEO14UPSAIIDRSTLINE 
Overview3000 BCVarious3000 BC-- Timeline Library - TroyIIIISCTLM2TLM1HWTLINE 
Overview1994 - 1595 BCBabylon1994 BC-- Timeline Library - (Old Babylonian -1-) IIIISCTLM2TLM1HWTLINE 
Overview1570 - 689 BCBabylon1570 BC-- Timeline Library - (Middle Babylonian -2-) IIIISCTLM2TLM1HWTLINE 
Overview625 - 539 BCBabylon625 BC-- Timeline Library - (Neo Babylonian -3-) IIIISCTLM2TLM1HWTLINE 
Overview626 - 539 BCBabylon626 - 539 BC

-- Timeline Library --
Neo Babylonian

IITLINE 
Overview4700 BCBulgaria4700 BCProvadia - (stone walls - city)IIIIIIIPRESumer 
Overview4500 - 3500 BCSyria4500 BCHamoukar - (very early city)IIIIDepaulIIIPRESumer 
Overview4500 - 3500 BCSyria4500 BCHamoukar ImagesIIIIIIPRESumer 
Overview4500 - 3500 BCSyria4500 BCKEY LINK PAGEIIPRESumer 
Overview5550 - 3050 BCEgypt4500 BCPredynastic PeriodIIIIIIIIIIEGYPTIAN 
Overview5550 - 3050 BCEgypt4500 BCcontinuedIIIIIIIIIEGYPTIAN 
Overview5550 - 3050 BCEgypt4500 BCNaqada CultureIIIIIIINaqada 
Overview5550 - 3050 BCEgypt4500 BCThe Palermo StoneIIIIIIEGYPTIAN 
Overview5000 - 500 BCEgypt4500 BC-- Timeline Library --IIIIIIIEGYPTIAN 
OverviewWorld-- Map Library - Very Ancient Maps IIIIIIIWk10SANEO1SIDEBAR 
OverviewSumer-- Image Book Shelf (Sumer) --IIIIIIIIBATLM4SIDEBAR 
Overview6000 BCEgypt6000 BC-- Map Library - (Egypt) IIIIIIIIIISIDEBAR 
Overview6000 - 500 BCNear East6000 BC-- Map Library - (Near East -1-) IFerCresIIISCTLM2TLM1HWTLM4SIDEBAR 
Overview6000 - 500 BCNear East6000 BC-- Map Library - (Near East -2-) IIIIISCTLM2TLM1HWTLM4SIDEBAR 
Overview6000 - 500 BCNear East6000 BC-- Map Library - (Near East -3-) IIIIISCTLM2TLM1HWTLM4SIDEBAR 
Overview6000 - 500 BCNear East6000 BC-- Map Library - (Near East -4-) IISeasISCTLM2TLM1HWTLM4SIDEBAR 
Overview6000 - 500 BCNear East6000 BC-- Map Library - (Near East -5-) II1350 BCISCTLM2TLM1HWTLM4SIDEBAR 
Overview10000 BCTurkey10000 BC-- Map Library - (Turkey -1-) ANTMIIANTBATLM4SIDEBAR 
Overview10000 BCTurkey10000 BC-- Map Library - (Turkey -2-) IIIANTBATLM4SIDEBAR 
Overview10000 BCTurkey10000 BC-- Map Library - (Turkey -3-) IIIIANTBATLM4SIDEBAR 
Overview10000 BCTurkey10000 BC-- Map Library - (Turkey -4-) IIIIANTBATLM4SIDEBAR 
Overview7500 BCTurkey7500 BC-- Map Library - (Turkey -5-) IIIIIANTMANTBATLM4SIDEBAR 
Overview8000 BCTurkey8000 BC-- Map Library - (Farming -1-) EvolNatufianFounderANTMANTBATLM4SIDEBAR 
Overview8000 BCTurkey8000 BC-- Map Library - (Farming -2-) FarmRachisANTMANTBATLM4SIDEBAR 
Overview8000 BCTurkey8000 BC-- Map Library - (Farming -3-) EinkornWEinkornCattleMilkCattleKaracadagANTMANTBATLM4SIDEBAR 
Overview8000 BCTurkey8000 BC-- Map Library - (Farming -4-) TurToEuropeANTMANTBATLM4SIDEBAR 
Overview8000 BCTurkey8000 BC-- Map Library - (Farming -5-) SpreadBarleyIBeerAgIranMesoChronoANTMANTBATLM4SIDEBAR 
Overview7500 BCTurkey7500 BC-- Map Library - (Syria -1-) IIIIIIIBATLM4SIDEBAR 
Overview7500 BCTurkey7500 BC-- Map Library - (Syria -2-) IIIIIBATLM4SIDEBAR 
Overview7500 BCTurkey7500 BC-- Map Library - (Syria -3-) IIIBATLM4SIDEBAR 
Overview6000 - 500 BCFertile Crescent6000 BC-- Map Library - (Fertile Crescent -1-) BFC2500 BC1274 BCIISCTLM2TLM1HWTLM4SIDEBAR 
Overview6000 - 500 BCFertile Crescent6000 BC-- Map Library - (Fertile Crescent -2-) IIIIISCTLM2TLM1HWTLM4SIDEBAR 
Overview6000 - 500 BCFertile Crescent6000 BC-- Map Library - (Fertile Crescent -3-) PnkIIIISCTLM2TLM1HWTLM4SIDEBAR 
Overview6000 - 500 BCFertile Crescent6000 BC-- Map Library - (Fertile Crescent -4-) Rachis1stFarmCattleCattleILAPHOLSIDEBAR 
Overview6000 - 500 BCFertile Crescent6000 BC-- Map Library - (Fertile Crescent -5-) IIIII1stFarmLAPHOLSIDEBAR 
Overview21500 BCLevant21500 BC-- Map Library - (Levant -1-) IIINatufianIILAPHOLSIDEBAR 
Overview21500 BCLevant21500 BC-- Map Library - (Levant -2-) IIIINatufianIILAPHOLSIDEBAR 
Overview21500 BCLevant21500 BC-- Map Library - (Levant -3-) ILate NatIIIIIIISIDEBAR 
Overview21500 BCLevant21500 BC-- Map Library - (Levant -4-) IIIIILAPHOLSIDEBAR 
Overview6000 - 500 BCMesopotamia6000 BC-- Map Library - (Mesopotamia -1-) II7090 BCChooseWMCSCTLM2TLM1HWTLM4SIDEBAR 
Overview6000 - 500 BCMesopotamia6000 BC-- Map Library - (Mesopotamia -2-) BFCRainHFilesIWMCSCTLM2TLM1HWTLM4SIDEBAR 
Overview6000 - 500 BCMesopotamia6000 BC-- Map Library - (Mesopotamia -3-) I1200 BC4000+ BCIWMCSCTLM2TLM1HWTLM4SIDEBAR 
Overview6000 - 500 BCMesopotamia6000 BC-- Map Library - (Mesopotamia -4-) I4000 BCWMCSCTLM2TLM1HWTLM4SIDEBAR 
Overview6000 - 500 BCMesopotamia6000 BC-- Map Library - (Mesopotamia -5-) I3500 BC1350 BC2500 BC *WMCSCTLM2TLM1HWTLM4SIDEBAR 
Overview6000 - 500 BCMesopotamia6000 BC-- Map Library - (Mesopotamia -6-) IIUpperIWMCSCTLM2TLM1HWTLM4SIDEBAR 
Overview6000 - 500 BCMesopotamia6000 BC-- Map Library - (Mesopotamia -7-) ITokensIWMCSCTLM2TLM1HWTLM4SIDEBAR 
Overview6500 - 3800 BCUbaid Period6500 BC-- Map Library - (Ubaid -1-) HalafIIIIUbaid1SCTLM2TLM1HWSIDEBAR 
Overview6500 - 3800 BCUbaid Period6500 BC-- Map Library - (Ubaid -2-) CirclesIIITLM4Ubaid2SCTLM2TLM1HWSIDEBAR 
Overview5400 - 2004 BCSumer5400 BC-- Map Library - (Sumer -1-) IIIIIIIIIISIDEBAR 
Overview5400 - 2004 BCSumer5400 BC-- Map Library - (Sumer -2-) 2500 BC *II2500 BC +ISCTLM2TLM1HWTLM4SIDEBAR 
Overview5400 - 2004 BCSumer5400 BC-- Map Library - (Sumer -3-) I1274 BCIIISCTLM2TLM1HWTLM4SIDEBAR 
Overview5400 - 2004 BCSumer5400 BC-- Map Library - (Sumer -4-) RainIIIISCTLM2TLM1HWTLM4SIDEBAR 
Overview5400 - 2004 BCSumer5400 BC-- Map Library - (Sumer -5-) IChicagoIIISCTLM2TLM1HWTLM4SIDEBAR 
Overview5400 - 2004 BCSumer5400 BC-- Map Library - (Sumer -6-) IIIIISCTLM2TLM1HWTLM4SIDEBAR 
Overview5400 - 2004 BCSumer5400 BC-- Map Library - (Sumer -7-) IIIIISCTLM2TLM1HWTLM4SIDEBAR 
Overview5400 - 2004 BCSumer5400 BC-- Map Library - (Sumer -8-) BowelsIIIISCTLM2TLM1HWTLM4SIDEBAR 
Overview5400 - 2004 BCSumer5400 BC-- Map Library - (Sumer -9-) SCTLM2TLM1HWTLM4SIDEBAR 
Overview5400 - 2004 BCSumer5400 BC-- Map Library - (Sumer Cities) IIIIISCTLM2TLM1HWTLM4SIDEBAR 
Overview5000 - 500 BCTrade5000 BC-- Map Library - (Trade Routes -1-) IIIIISCTLM2TLM1HWTLM4SIDEBAR 
Overview5000 - 500 BCTrade5000 BC-- Map Library - (Trade Routes -2-) IIIIISCTLM2TLM1HWTLM4SIDEBAR 
Overview5500 BCMetal5500 BC-- Map Library - (Metals -1-) IIIIISCTLM2TLM1HWTLM4SIDEBAR 
Overview5500 BCMetal5500 BC-- Map Library - (Metals -2-) IIIBALPSCTLM2TLM1HWTLM4SIDEBAR 
OverviewCalendar-- Map Library - (Calendar) SCTLM2TLM1HWTLM4SIDEBAR 
Overview5400 BCSumer 5400 BC-- Map Library - (Eridu -1-) IIIIIIIIITLM4SIDEBAR 
Overview5400 BCSumer 5400 BC-- Map Library - (Eridu -2-) IIIIIIIIITLM4SIDEBAR 
Overview5300 BCSumer 5300 BC-- Map Library - (Bad-tibira -2-) IIIIIIITLM4SIDEBAR 
Overview5300 BCSumer 5300 BC-- Map Library - (Larsa -3-) IIIIIITLM2TLM1HWTLM4SIDEBAR 
Overview5300 BCSumer 5300 BC-- Map Library - (Sippar -4-) IIIIISCTLM2TLM1HWTLM4SIDEBAR 
Overview5300 BCSumer 5300 BC-- Map Library - (Shuruppak -5-) IIIIIUrukExpTLM2TLM1HWTLM4SIDEBAR 
Overview5400 BCSumer 5400 BC-- Map Library - Sumerian (Gods) IIGeneaIIIIITLM4SIDEBAR 
Overview5400 BCSumer 5400 BC-- Map Library - Babylonian (Gods) IANNIITLM4SIDEBAR 
Overview5400 BCSumer 5400 BC-- Map Library - Greek (Gods) IIIITLM4SIDEBAR 
Overview5400 BCSumer 5400 BC-- Map Library - Egyptian (Gods) IITLM4SIDEBAR 
Overview5260 BCGreece5260 BC

Dispilio Tablet

IIIIISIGNS 
Overview5000 - 3100 BCSumer 5000 BC-- Map Library - (Uruk -1-) IIIII1300 BCHWITLM1TLM4SIDEBAR 
Overview5000 - 3100 BCSumer 5000 BC-- Map Library - (Uruk -2-) IIIIIIHWITLM1TLM4SIDEBAR 
Overview5000 - 3100 BCSumer 5000 BC-- Map Library - (Uruk Structures -3-) IIIHWITLM1TLM4SIDEBAR 
Overview5000 - 3100 BCSumer 5000 BC-- Map Library - (Uruk Ruins -4-) IIIIHWITLM1TLM4SIDEBAR 
Overview5000 - 3100 BCSumer 5000 BC-- Map Library - (Uruk Gilgamesh -5-) IIIIIIHWITLM1TLM4SIDEBAR 
Overview5000 - 3100 BCSumer 5000 BC-- Map Library - (Uruk ETCSL -6-) IHWITLM1TLM4SIDEBAR 
Overview5000 - 3100 BCSumer 5000 BC-- Map Library - (Uruk Cuneiform -7-) HWITLM1TLM4SIDEBAR 
Overview4500 - 2004 BCSumer 4500 BC-- Map Library - (UR -1-) IIHWTLM2ITLM1TLM4SIDEBAR 
Overview4500 - 2004 BCSumer 4500 BC-- Map Library - (UR -2-) IIHWTLM2ITLM1TLM4SIDEBAR 
Overview4500 - 2004 BCSumer 4500 BC-- Map Library - (UR -3-) HWTLM2ITLM1TLM4SIDEBAR 
Overview3800 -2004 BCSumer 3800 BC-- Map Library - (Kish -1-) IIIISCTLM2ITLM1TLM4SIDEBAR 
Overview3800 -2004 BCSumer 3800 BC-- Map Library - (Kish -2-) IIIISCTLM2ITLM1TLM4SIDEBAR 
Overview3800 -2004 BCSumer 3800 BC-- Map Library - (Kish Ruins -3-) IIIISCTLM2ITLM1TLM4SIDEBAR 
Overview3800 -2004 BCSumer 3800 BC-- Map Library - (Kish Artifacts -4-) SCTLM2ITLM1TLM4SIDEBAR 
Overview3800 -2004 BCSumer 3800 BC-- Map Library - (Kish The Kish Conjecture -5-) SCTLM2ITLM1TLM4SIDEBAR 
Overview3800 - 2004 BCSumer 3800 BC-- Map Library - (Lagash) IIIIISCTLM2ITLM1TLM4SIDEBAR 
Overview3800 - 2004 BCSumer 3800 BC-- Map Library - (Umma) IIIIISCTLM2ITLM1TLM4SIDEBAR 
Overview3800 -2004 BCSumer 3800 BC-- Map Library - (Nippur -1-) ISCTLM2ITLM1TLM4SIDEBAR 
Overview3800 -2004 BCSumer 3800 BC-- Map Library - (Nippur -2-) IIISCTLM2ITLM1TLM4SIDEBAR 
Overview2334 - 2154 BCAkkad2270 BC-- Map Library - (Akkad -1-) IIIIITLM2ITLM1TLM4SIDEBAR 
Overview2334 - 2154 BCAkkad2270 BC-- Map Library - (Akkad -2-) IIIITLM2ITLM1TLM4SIDEBAR 
Overview2334 - 2154 BCAkkad2270 BC-- Map Library - (Akkad -3-) IIIITLM2ITLM1TLM4SIDEBAR 
Overview1994 - 1595 BCOld Babylonian Period1994 BC-- Map Library - (Babylon -1-) IIITLM2TLM1HWSIDEBAR 
Overview1570 - 689 BCMiddle Babylonian Period1570 BC-- Map Library - (Babylon -2-) IIIIITLM2TLM1HWSIDEBAR 
Overview1570 - 689 BCMiddle Babylonian Period1300 BC-- Map Library - (Babylon -3-) IIIIITLM2TLM1HWSIDEBAR 
Overview625 - 539 BCNeo-Babylonia Period625 BC-- Map Library - (Babylon -4-) IIIIIITLM2TLM1HWSIDEBAR 
Overview3100 BC - 1 ADVarious3100 BC-- Map Library - 5 Civilizations --IIIIIIIIISIDEBAR 
Overview3300 - 1300 BCNW India/Pakistan3300 BC-- Map Library - (Indus Valley-1-) IIIIISIDEBAR 
Overview3300 - 1300 BCNW India/Pakistan3300 BC-- Map Library - (Indus Valley-2-) IIIIISIDEBAR 
Overview3300 - 1300 BCNW India/Pakistan3300 BC-- Map Library - (Indus Valley-3-) IIIIIISIDEBAR 
Overview3800 - 500 BCEgypt-- Mesopotamia's Influence on Egypt --IIIIIIISeasISIDEBAR 
Overview3800 - 500 BCEgypt-- Ancient Sumer and Minoan Crete --SIDEBAR 
Overview3800 - 500 BCEgypt-- continued --IIIIIIISIDEBAR 
Overview3800 - 500 BCEgypt-- Egyptian Literature --IIIIIIIISIDEBAR 
Overview3800 - 500 BCMesopotamia-- Mathematics Timeline --IIIIIIIIIWk12SIDEBAR 
Overview3800 - 500 BCMesopotamia-- Mathematics Timeline --IIIIIIIIWk12SIDEBAR 
Overview2600 - 500 BCMesopotamia-- Sumerian Writing Timeline --IIIIIIIISIDEBAR 
Overview2600 - 500 BCEgypt2600 BCThe Dawn of WritingIIIIIIISIDEBAR 
Overview3800 - 2004 BCSumer3800 BC

Sumer - (It all started here!)

IIIIIIIITLM2TLM1BLACKBIG 
Overview3800 - 2004 BCSumer3800 BCcontinued -1-IIIIIIITLM2TLM1BLACK 
Overview3800 - 2004 BCSumer3800 BCcontinued -2-IIIIITLM2TLM1HWBLACK 
Overview3800 - 2004 BCSumer3800 BCcontinued -3-IIIIIIITLM2TLM1HWBLACK 
Overview3800 - 2004 BCSumer3800 BCcontinued -4-WMCIIIIIITLM2TLM1HWBLACK 
Overview3800 - 2004 BCSumer3800 BCSumerian CultureIIIIIITLM2TLM1PCM 
Overview3800 - 2004 BCMesopotamia3800 BCSumerIIIIIIIITLM2TLM1PCM 
Overview3800 - 2004 BCMesopotamia3800 BCSumer - Origin of Greek thoughtITLM2TLM1HWPCM 
Overview3800 - 2004 BCSumer 3800 - 2004 BCSumerian ChronologyTLM2TLM1HWBLACKBIG 
Overview3800 - 2004 BCSumer 3800 - 2004 BCSumerian Timeline - Bad Data - do not useTLM2TLM1HWHMAN 
Overview3800 - 2004 BCSumer 3800 - 2004 BCSumerian Gods List - Bad Data - do not useTLM2TLM1HWHMAN 
Overview3800 - 2004 BCSumer 3800 - 2004 BCSumerian Literature - Bad Data - do not useTLM2TLM1HWHMAN 
Overview3650 - 1390 BCCrete3650 BCThe MinoansIIIIIIIIIIMinoans 
Overview3650 - 1390 BCCrete3650 BCThe MinoansIIIIIIIIMinoans 
Overview3650 - 1390 BCMalta3650 BCTarxien TempleIIIIIIIMinoansM 
Overview3500 BCKazakhstan3500 BCFirst Horse Domestication - Kazakhstan IIIIMetal_B 
Overview3300 - 2100 BCVarious3300 BCEarly Bronze AgeIIIIIIIIIIMetal_B 
Overview3300 - 2100 BCVarious3250 BCOldest Pharaoh Rock Art Rediscovered in EgyptIEGYPTIAN 
Overview3800 - 2004 BCSumer3500 BC

The Kish Tablet

IIIIIIIIITLM1Hulu 
Overview3500 BCSumer3500 BC

Proto-Cuneiform Invented

IIIIIIPCV2IIISIGNS 
Overview3500 BCSumer3500 BC

continued - Proto-Cuneiform

IIIIIIIISULNKTLM1SIGNS 
Overview3500 BCSumer3500 BC

continued - Proto-Cuneiform

IIIElamIIIISULNKTLM1SIGNS 
Overview???? BCSumer???? BC

Euphratic ???

ISULNKTLM1SIGNS 
Overview3800 - 2004 BCSumer3300 BC

Birth of Writing

WriteIIIIIISULNKTLM1SIGNS 
Overview3800 - 2004 BCSumer3300 BC

continued - Birth of Writing

IIIIIFOXISULNKTLM1SIGNS 
Overview3800 - 2004 BCSumer3300 BC

List of Texts

IIIIISULNKTLM1SIGNS 
Overview3800 - 2004 BCSumer3300 BC

continued - List of Texts

IIIIIISULNKTLM1SIGNS 
Overview3800 - 2004 BCSumer3200 BC

Standard Professions List

IIIIIIIIITLM1Huluppu 
Overview1963 ADChicago1963 AD

Kramers - The Sumerians

IIIFOXIRubioIIRubioHuluppu 
Overview3800 - 2004 BCSumer 2750 BC

Etana - King Of Kish

IIIIIITLM1Huluppu 
Overview3800 - 2004 BCSumer 2750 BC

The Kish Conjecture

IITLM1Huluppu 
Overview3800 - 2004 BCSumer 2600 BC

Cuneiform Invented - Fara Period

IIIIIIIIITLM1FARA 
Overview3800 - 2004 BCSumer 2600 BC

Satellite Images

IIIIIIIIIIFARA 
Overview3800 - 2004 BCSumer2600 BCExamples of Cuneiform TablesIIIIIIIIITLM1FARA 
Overview3800 - 2004 BCSumer2600 BCSumerian LexiconIIIIIIIIITLM1FARA 
Overview3800 - 2004 BCSumer 2600 BCReligious WritingsIIIIIIIIIIPCM 
Overview3800 - 2004 BCSumer 2600 BCcontinued - Religious WritingsIIIIIIIIPCM 
Overview3800 - 2004 BCSumer 2600 BCcontinued - Religious WritingsIIIIIIIIIPCM 
Overview3800 - 2004 BCSumer 2600 BCcontinued - Religious WritingsIITLM1IIIIIIPCM 
Overview3800 - 2004 BCSumer 2600 BCHonorsIIIIIIIIIIPCM 
Overview3800 - 2004 BCSumer 2600 BCETCSL - available compositions and translationsIIIIIITL-15BCPCM 
Overview3800 - 2004 BCSumer2600 BC

46 Incantations - Early Dynastic IIIa Period

IIIIIIIITLM1HYMNS 
Overview3800 - 2004 BCSumer2600 BC

Kesh temple hymn - Early Dynastic IIIa Period

IIIIIIITLM1HYMNS 
Overview3800 - 2004 BCSumer 2600 BC

The Myth of Etana

IIIIETANA 
Overview3800 - 2004 BCSumer 2600 BC

The Myth of Etana - Images

IIIIIIIETANA 
Overview3800 - 2004 BCSumer 2600 BC

The Myth of Etana - Tablets 1 - 4

IIIIIETANA 
Overview3800 - 2004 BCSumer 2600 BC

The Myth of Etana - more

IIIIIIETANA 
Overview3800 - 2004 BCSumer 2600 BC

The Myth of Etana - reflections

ETANA 
Overview2500 - 2250 BCSyria2500 BC

Ebla Tablets

IIIIIIITLM1Huluppu 
Overview3800 - 2004 BCSumer 2455 to 2425 BC

Eannatum - King Of Lagash

IIIIIIIHuluppu 
Overview3800 - 2004 BCSumer 2455 to 2425 BC

Eannatum - Stele of Vultures

IIIIIIIIHuluppu 
Overview3800 - 2004 BCSumer 2455 to 2425 BC

1st Documented War - Lagash vs Umma

IIIIIIIIIIHuluppu 
Overview3800 - 2004 BCSumer2405 BC

Royal Inscriptions of Entemena

IIIIIIITLM1Huluppu 
Overview3800 - 2004 BCSumer2350 BC

The Instructions of Šuruppag

IIIIITLM1Huluppu 
Overview3800 - 2004 BCSumer 2340 BC

The Barton Cylinder

IIIIBARTON 
Overview3800 - 2004 BCSumer 2300 BC

The Eridu Genesis

IIIIIIIIIIERIGEN 
Overview3800 - 2004 BCSumer 2300 BC

(continued)

IIIIIHuluppu 
Overview3800 - 2004 BCSyria2300 BC

Oldest Dictionary

IIIIIIIHuluppu 
Overview3800 - 500 BCSumer 2285 - 2250 BC

Enheduanna - World's First Author

IIIIIIIIIIHuluppu 
Overview3800 - 2004 BCSumer 2119 - 2112 BC

Sumerian Kings List

IIIIIIHuluppu 
Overview3800 - 2004 BCSumer 2119 - 2004 BC

Oldest Medical Texts

IIIIHuluppu 
Overview3800 - 2004 BCSumer2050 BC ?

Royal Chronicle of Lagash

IIIIIIITLM1Huluppu 
Overview3800 - 2004 BCSumer2050 BC ?

Lugalbanda and the Anzud bird

IIIIIIIIITLM1Huluppu 
Overview3800 - 2004 BCSumer 1900 BC

Naram-Sin of Uruk

IIIHuluppu 
Overview3800 - 2004 BCSumer 2500 BCMesopotamian - GrammarIIITL-15BCTerms 
Overview2200 BC - 1550 BCVarious2200 BC - 1550 BCStart of Middle Bronze AgeIIIIIIIIMetal_B 
Overview2200 BC - 1550 BCVarious2200 BC - 1550 BCcontinuedIIIIIIIITerms 
Overview2200 BC - 1550 BCVarious2200 BC - 1550 BCcontinuedIIITerms 
Overview3800 - 2004 BCSumer 2200 BC-- Numbers --IIIIIIIIIIPCM 
Overview3800 - 2004 BCSumer 2150 BCDebate - Sheep and GrainHuluppuX 
Overview3800 - 2004 BCSumer 2150 BCDebate - Winter and SummerHuluppuX 
Overview3800 - 2004 BCSumer 2150 BCInanna and the Huluppu Tree - A Creation StoryIIIIIIIIMesoHuluppuX 
Overview3800 - 2004 BCSumer 2150 BCcontinuedIIIIIIIHuluppuX 
Overview3800 - 2004 BCSumer 2150 BCcontinuedIIIIIIIIITLMesoHuluppuX 
Overview3800 - 2004 BCSumer 2150 BCcontinuedIIIIIIHuluppuX 
Overview3800 - 2004 BCSumer 2150 BCAtrahasis Epic - Creation of HumansIIIIIIIIITLM1HuluppuX 
Overview3800 - 2004 BCSumer 2150 BCcontinuedIIIIIHWTLMesoHuluppuX 
Overview3800 - 2004 BCSumer 2150 BCThe Epic of GilgameshIIIIIIIIIIHuluppuX 
Overview3800 - 2004 BCSumer 2150 BCcontinuedIIIIIIIIHuluppuX 
Overview3800 - 2004 BCSumer 2150 BCcontinuedIIIIIIIIHuluppuX 
Overview3800 - 2004 BCSumer 2150 BCcontinuedIIIHuluppuX 
Overview3800 - 2004 BCSumer 2150 BCAdapa - The First ManIIIIIIIIIIHuluppuX 
Overview3800 - 2004 BCSumer 2150 BCcontinuedIIIIIIIIIHuluppuX 
Overview3800 - 2004 BCSumer 2150 BCThe Song of Hoe - (Origin of Humans)IIIIIIHuluppuX 
Overview3800 - 2004 BCSumer 2150 BCEnki and Ninmah - Birth of HumanityIIIHuluppuX 
Overview3800 - 2004 BCSumer 2150 BCcontinuedIIIIIHuluppuX 
Overview3800 - 2004 BCSumer 2150 BCcontinuedIIIIIIHuluppuX 
Overview3800 - 2004 BCSumer 2150 BCcontinuedIIIIIIIHuluppuX 
Overview3800 - 2004 BCSumer 2150 BCcontinuedHuluppuX 
Overview3800 - 500 BCBabylon1500 BCCreation of the Universe - Enuma Elish IIIIIIIIIIHuluppuX 
Overview3800 - 500 BCMesopotamia2200 BCMesopotamian Influences on the Old TestamentIIIIIIIIHuluppuX 
Overview2200 BCMesopotamia2200 BCSumer - Poems and Proverbs - (examples)IIIIIIIIIHuluppuX 
Overview2050 BCSumer 2050 BCUr-Nammu's Code - Oldest Known Law CodeIIIIIITerms 
Overview2000 BCLevant2000 BCThe confusing word - CanaaniteIIII 
Overview1900 BCMesopotamia1900 BCIntroduction - Assyro-Babylonian Myths 
Overview1800 BCMesopotamia1800 BCAkkad - 2nd Creation Myth - The Story of AtrahasisIIIIIIIIII 
Overview1800 BCMesopotamia1800 BCAkkad - 2nd Creation Myth - The Story of Atrahasis 
Overview1800 BCMesopotamia1800 BCBabylonia - 3rd Creation Myth - Enuma ElishIIIIII 
Overview1800 BCTurkey1800 BCHitite - Creation MythIIIII 
Overview1600 - 1100 BCGreek1600 - 1100 BCGreece - The MyceneansIIIIIIIIII 
Overview1600 - 1100 BCGreek1600 - 1100 BCGreece - The MyceneansIIIIIIIIIII 
Overview1550 - 1200 BCVarious1550 - 1200 BCStart of Late Bronze AgeIIIIIIIMetal_B 
Overview1500 BCWestern1500 BCThe First Alphabet - PhoeniciaIIIIIIIIIII 
Overview1500 BCWestern1500 BCThe First Alphabet'sIIIIIIIIII 
Overview1500 BCWestern1500 BCThe First Alphabet'sIIIIIIIIII 
Overview1400 BCGreek1400 BCGreece - Linear B AlphabetIIIII 
Overview1200 BCGreek1200 BCThe Trojan War - Western Literature BeginsIIIIIIIII 
Overview1200 BCGreek1200 BCThe Trojan War - Western Literature BeginsIIII 
Overview1200 BCWestern1200 BCGreek AlphabetIIIIIIIIII 
Overview1100 BCHebrew1100 BCOld Hebrew AlphabetIIIIII 
Overview800 BCGreek800 BCGreek Creation Myth - The First GodsIIIIIIII 
Overview725 BCGreek725 BCOdysseus' JourneyII 
Overview800 BCGreek800 BCGreek Deluge 
Overview800 BCGreek800 BCGreek Creation Myth - The First GodsIIIIIIIIII 
Overview800 BCGreek800 BCGreek Creation Myth - Hesiod's TheogonyIIIIIIIII 
Overview800 BCGreek800 BCThe Greek Gods (of Literature)IIIIIIIII 
Overview753 BCRoman753 BCRoman History Timeline (1)IIIIIIIIII 
Overview753 BCRoman753 BCRoman History Timeline (2)IIIIIIII 
Overview753 BCRoman753 BCRoman History NarrativeIIIIIIIII 
Overview753 BCRoman753 BCThe Founding of RomeIIIIII 
Overview700 BCGreek700 BCEpic PoetryIIIIIIIIIII 
Overview700 BCGreek700 BCEpic PoetryIIIIIIIII 
Overview700 BCGreek700 BCGreek LiteratureI 
Overview700 BCRoman700 BCLatin - (Language and Writers)IIIIIIIIII 
Overview700 BCRoman700 BCLatin - (Language and Writers)IIIIIIIII 
Overview700 BCRoman700 BCLatin - (Language and Writers)IIIIIII 
Overview636 BCGreek636 BCGreek Philosophy (1)IIIIIIIIIII 
Overview636 BCGreek636 BCGreek Philosophy (2)IIIIIIIII 
Overview600 BCGreek600 BCRhetoricIIIIIIIIIII 
Overview600 BCGreek600 BCRhetoricIIIIIIIIIII 
Overview600 BCGreek600 BCRhetoricIIIIII 
Overview484 BCWestern484 BCList of HistoriansIIIII 
Overview484 BCWestern484 BCList of Classical WritersIIIIIIIIII 
Overview380 BCRoman380 BCHumanitiesIIIIIIIII 
Overview340 BCRoman340 BCLatin replaces GreekIIIIIIIII 
Overview340 BCRoman340 BCLatin replaces GreekIIIIIIII 
Overview284 BCRoman284 BCSaturnian PoetryIIIIIIIIII 
Overview269 BCRoman269 BCRoman AuthorsIIIIIIIII 
Overview269 BCRoman269 BCRoman AuthorsIIIIIIIIII 
Overview269 BCRoman269 BCRoman AuthorsIIII 
Overview269 BCRoman269 BCRoman Comedy PlaywrightsIIIIIIII 
Overview269 BCRoman269 BCRoman SatiristsIIIIIIIIIII 
Overview269 BCRoman269 BCRoman SatiristsII 
Overview254 BCRoman254 BCRoman HistoriansIIIIIIIII 
Overview254 BCRoman254 BCRoman HistoriansIIIIIIIIII 
Overview106 BCRoman106 BCRoman PhilosophyIIIIIII 
Overview55 BCBritain55 BCBritainIIIIIIIIII 
Overview30 ADRoman30 ADEarly Christian WritingsIIIIIIIII 
Overview30 ADRoman30 ADEarly Christian WritingsIII 
Overview250 ADRoman250 ADFirst Latin used in the ChurchIIIIIIIIII 
OverviewGreekHomer and Virgil and Dante 
OverviewRomanChaucer and SenecaIIII 
OverviewRomanShakespeare Sources - 1IIIIIIIIII 
OverviewVariousShakespeare Sources - 2IIIIIIIIII 
OverviewVariousShakespeare Sources - 3IIIIIIII 
OverviewRomanShakespeare and OvidIIIIIIIIII 
OverviewRomanHelpful LinksIIIIIIII 
OverviewRomanHelpful LinksIIIIIIIII 
Mesopotamia9,000-500 BCIntro9,000-500 BCIntroductionIIIIIIIIIIMZ1 
Mesopotamia9,000-500 BCIntro9,000-500 BCcontinuedIIIIIIIIIIMZ2 
Mesopotamia9,000-500 BCIntro9,000-500 BCHonorsIIIIIIIIIIMZ1 
Mesopotamia9,000-500 BCIntro9,000-500 BCResourcesIIIIIIIIIIMZ1 
Mesopotamia9,000-500 BCIntro9,000-500 BCSundryIIIIIIIMZ2 
Mesopotamia9,000-500 BCMaps9,000-500 BCMaps - Fertile CrescentMesMap 
Mesopotamia9,000-500 BCSumer 5000-4800 BCMaps - Uruk FoundedIIIMesMap 
Mesopotamia9,000-500 BCSumer 3,800-3,400 BCMaps - Urak IX - Middle Urak PeriodIIIMesMap 
Mesopotamia9,000-500 BCSumer 3200 BCInvention of Writing System - CuneiformIIIITerms 
Mesopotamia9,000-500 BCSumer 3100-2900 BCMaps - Jemdet Nasr PeriodIIIIMesMap 
Mesopotamia9,000-500 BCMaps2900-2800 BCEarly Dynastic I Period - (before Flood)IIIIIIIIIIMesMap 
Mesopotamia9,000-500 BCMaps2800-2600 BCEarly Dynastic II Period - (after Flood) - GilgameshIIIIIIIIIMesMap 
Mesopotamia9,000-500 BCMaps2600-2500 BCEarly Dynastic IIIa PeriodIIIIIIMesMap 
Mesopotamia9,000-500 BCMaps2500-2334 BCEarly Dynastic IIIb Period - LagashIIIIIIIIMesMap 
Mesopotamia9,000-500 BCMaps2334-2230 BCAkkad Dynasty Period - Sargon the GreatIIIIIMesMap 
Mesopotamia9,000-500 BCMaps2230-2119 BCGutian PeriodIIIIIIIIMesMap 
Mesopotamia9,000-500 BCMaps2119-2004 BCUR III PeriodIIIIIIIMesMap 
Mesopotamia9,000-500 BCSumer 2050 BCUR - 1st (known) Invention of a Code of LawIIIIITerms 
Mesopotamia9,000-500 BCMaps2004-1595 BCOld Babylonian Period - Amorite ConquestIIIIIIIIIMesMap 
Mesopotamia9,000-500 BCBabylon1728 BCHammurabi - Code of LawIIIIIITerms 
Mesopotamia9,000-500 BCBabylon1595-1375 BCMaps - Hitite ConquestIIIIIIIIIMesMap 
Mesopotamia9,000-500 BCBabylon1375-1155 BCMaps - Kassite ConquestIMesMap 
Mesopotamia9,000-500 BCBabylon1155-626 BCMaps - Neo-AssyriansIIIIIIIIIMesMap 
Mesopotamia9,000-500 BCAssyria9,000-500 BCMaps - AssyriaIIIIIIIIIMesMap 
Mesopotamia - Babylon9,000-500 BCMaps625-539 BCNeo-Babylonian Period - Chaladean ConquestIIIIIIIIIIMesMap 
Mesopotamia - Babylon9,000-500 BCMaps539-330 BCPersian Babylonian Period - Persian ConquestIIIIIIIIIIMesMap 
Mesopotamia - Babylon9,000-500 BCMaps330-??? BCAlexander the Great defeats PersiaIIIIIIIMesMap 
Mesopotamia11000 BCPN11000 BCTime-(1) - Proto-Neolithic/UbaidTLMesoIIIIMesChrono 
Mesopotamia9,000-500 BCStates4000-3000 BCTime-(3) - UrukIIIIIIIMesChrono 
Mesopotamia9,000-500 BCSumer 3100-2900 BCTime-(4) - Jemdet NasrI3rdIIMesChrono 
Mesopotamia9,000-500 BCSumer 9,000-500 BCTime-(5)HWTLMesoTroyIIIIIMesChrono 
Mesopotamia9,000-500 BCSumer 9,000-500 BCTime-(6)ITLMeso1IIMesChrono 
Mesopotamia9,000-500 BCSumer 9,000-500 BCTime-(7)IIIMesoMesChrono 
Mesopotamia9,000-500 BCAkkadians2,300 BCAkkadiansIIIIIIIIIMesChrono 
Mesopotamia9,000-500 BCAmorites2000-1600 BCTime-(9) - (Old Babylonian Period)IIIIIMesChrono 
Mesopotamia9,000-500 BCAmorites2000-1600 BCTime-(10) - (Old Babylonian Period)IIIIIMesChrono 
Mesopotamia9,000-500 BCHittites9,000-500 BCTime-(11)IIIIIIIMesChrono 
Mesopotamia9,000-500 BCAssyrians9,000-500 BCTime-(12)IIIIMesChrono 
Mesopotamia9,000-500 BCNB9,000-500 BCTime-(13) - (NB=Neo-Babylonian)IMesChrono 
Mesopotamia9,000-500 BCSumer 9,000-500 BCKing-(1)IIIIIIIIIMesPeriod 
Mesopotamia9,000-500 BCSumer 9,000-500 BCKing-(2)IIIIIIIMesPeriod 
Mesopotamia9,000-500 BCAkkadians9,000-500 BCKing-(3)IIIIIIIIMesPeriod 
Mesopotamia9,000-500 BCAmorites9,000-500 BCKing-(4) - Old BabyloniansIIIMesPeriod 
Mesopotamia9,000-500 BCHitites9,000-500 BCKing-(5)IIIIIMesPeriod 
Mesopotamia9,000-500 BCAssyria9,000-500 BCKing-(6)IIIIIIIIIIMesPeriod 
Mesopotamia9,000-500 BCNB9,000-500 BCKing-(7) - (NB = Neo-Babylonian)IIIIIMesPeriod 
Mesopotamia9,000-500 BCStates9,000-500 BCReligion-(1) - Mesopotamian FloodIIIIIIMesRel 
Mesopotamia9,000-500 BCStates9,000-500 BCReligion-(2) - MesopotamianIIIIIIIIMesRel 
Mesopotamia9,000-500 BCStates9,000-500 BCReligion-(3) - MesopotamianMesRel 
Mesopotamia9,000-500 BCStates9,000-500 BCReligion-(4) - MesopotamianIIMesRel 
Mesopotamia9,000-500 BCStates9,000-500 BCThe Cradle of Civilization (1)IIIIIIIIIMesInc 
Mesopotamia9,000-500 BCStates9,000-500 BCThe Cradle of Civilization (2)IIIIIIMesInc 
Mesopotamia9,000-500 BCStates9,000-500 BCThe Cradle of Civilization (3)MesoIIIIMesInc 
Mesopotamia9,000-500 BCSumer 9,000-500 BCSumerian CultureIIIIIMesopotamia 
Mesopotamia9,000-500 BCSumer 9,000-500 BCSumerian CultureIIIIIIIIMesopotamia 
Mesopotamia9,000-500 BCSumer 9,000-500 BCSumerian CultureIIIIIIMesopotamia 
A???? - 4000 BCSyria???? - 4000 BCHamoukar, Syria - Earliest City - (?)IIIIIIIIIMesPeriod 
B7400 - 6200 BCTurkey7400 - 6200 BCÇatal HüyükIIIIIIIIIIMesPeriod 
C7,000 - 6300 BCMesopotamia7,000 - 6300 BCSamarra PeriodTLM5IIIIIIIMesPeriod 
D6900 - 6,500 BCMesopotamia6900 - 6,500 BCHassuna PeriodTLM5IIIIIIMesPeriod 
E6,500 - 5600 BCSyria6,500 - 5600 BCHalaf PeriodIIIIIIIIMesPeriod 
F6200 - 3900 BCSumer 6200 - 3900 BCUBaid Period - 1IIIIIIIIIMesPeriod 
F6200 - 3900 BCSumer 6200 - 3900 BCUBaid Period - 2IIIIIIMesPeriod 
F-13500 - 500 BCMesopotamia3500 - 500 BCCDLI - Digital CuneiformIIIIIMesPeriod 
Sumer 5400 BCEridu5400 BCEridu - 1st City - (Iraq)IIIIIIIMesPeriod 
Sumer 5400 BCEridu5400 BCEridu - 1st City - (Iraq)IIIMesPeriod 
G3900 - 2900 BCSumer 3900 - 2900 BCUruk Period - Early-Middle-LateIIIIIIITLM5IMesPeriod 
Sumer 5,000 BCUruk5,000 BCUruk - 1st City/State - (Iraq)IIIChicagoIIIIIMesPeriod 
Sumer 5,000 BCUruk5,000 BCUruk - 1st City/State - (Iraq)ITLMeso1IIIIIMesPeriod 
Sumer 5,000 BCUruk5,000 BCUruk - 1st City/State - (Iraq)II2500 BC +IIMesPeriod 
Sumer 3500 BCShuruppak3000 BCLocation of the Deluge? - (Iraq)IIIIIIIIMesPeriod 
H3100 - 2900 BCSumer 3100 - 2900 BCJemdet Nasr PeriodIITLM5IMesPeriod 
I2900-1800 BCSumer 2900-1800 BCEarly Dynastic PeriodIMesPeriod 
I2900-1800 BCSumer 2900-1800 BCEarly Dynastic PeriodIIIIIIIIIIMesPeriod 
Sumer 5,000 BCAkkad5,000 BCEarly City/State in Mesopotamia - (Iraq)IIMesPeriod 
Sumer 5,000 BCUr5,000 BCEarly City/State in Mesopotamia - (Iraq)IIIIChicagoIIIMesPeriod 
Sumer 5,000 BCUr5,000 BCEarly City/State in Mesopotamia - (Iraq)IIIIITLMeso1IIIMesPeriod 
Sumer 3500 BCUr3500 BCInvention of the WheelIIIIIMesopotamia 
Sumer 5,000 BCNippur5,000 BCEarly City/State in Mesopotamia - (Iraq)IIIIIChicagoIIIIMesPeriod 
Egyptian3200-500 BCEgypt3200-500 BCEgyptian KingsIIKing 
Egyptian3100 BCMenes3100 BC1st King of EgyptIIIIKing 
Sumer 2800 BCKish2800 BCDominant Mesopotamian City - (Iraq)IITLMeso1IChicagoIIIIIMesPeriod 
Sumer 2800 BCKish2800 BCDominant Mesopotamian City - (Iraq)MesPeriod 
Sumer 2800 BCKish2800 BCEtana - 1st recorded Sumerian KingIIIIIIIIMesPeriod 
Iran2700 BCAratta2700 BCCity in Iran?IIIIIMesPeriod 
Egyptian2686-2649 BCDjoser2686-2649 BCKing - 1st Step PyramidKing 
Sumer 2600 BCLagash2600 BCEarly Mesopotamian City - (Iraq)IIIIIIIMesPeriod 
Sumer 2600 BCUmma2600 BCEarly Mesopotamian City - (Iraq)IIIMesPeriod 
Egyptian2589-2566 BCKhufu2589-2566 BCKing - Great Pyramid of GizaI