The Beowulf Page

The first 199 links on the Beowulf page are generic English Literature links
covering various facets of English Literature and Old English history.

The "actual" Beowulf page begins on row 200.

Specific Beowulf links begin at row 640.
The Beowulf poem begins at row 690.

Why include generic English Literature links?

Imagine you are interrupted and require information
about a different english subject or author.

The Literature links provide an easy way to search
for and obtain information about English authors
while maintaining your Beowulf web page.

For instance, here is a link to various English poets ....

Poet Index

And here - perhaps - is the best English Literature web site on the web


Finally, please use the Bonus Link(s) (top of the Beowulf page)
to obtain a perspective of the earliest English Historians and Poets

Earliest English Writers

Or - a comprehensive list of the earliest ANCIENT WRITERS.

Ancient Writers

In summary, Literature links enable you to study one topic
and simultaneously gather information on additional topics.

All Literature Pages on this Web Site
begin with these generic English literature links.

The type of links available varies based on the specific
Literature Web Page you are browsing.

There are many history links on the Beowulf page.


And why do so many links focus on the
Anglo-Saxon period?

Suppose E.T. visited Earth (for the first time)
and discovered classical music e.g. a work by Mozart.

Would Mozart's interpretation of music 'make sense' to E.T.?

Probably not, in part because E.T. would not *understand*
the historical and cultural events that lead up to the advent of classical
music, as well as, Mozart's interpretation of it.

Likewise, a full "smell" (savoring) of the Beowulf broth necessitates
an understanding of the historical and cultural heritage
it was composed in.

In part, this British broth (heritage) would include:

Celtic kingdom(s) before the Roman invasion Celtic Kingdoms

The two groups of Celtic languages Celtic Languages

The Roman invasion (43 AD) .... Invasion I I I I

Magnus Maximus (Roman general in Britain) (383 AD) .... Wants to be the next Roman Emperor I

Alaric (410 AD) .... Alaric enters Rome

The Rescript of Honorius (410 AD) .... Defend yourself! Fiction? I

The Roman departure (410 AD) .... Departure

Post Roman Britain (410 AD) .... Tribes

The Anglo-Saxon invasion(s) (449 AD) .... Invasion

The rise of the Anglo-Saxon kingdom(s) (449 AD - 1066 AD) ... I I

The demise [END] of the Roman Empire (476 AD) ... I I I

Start of the DARK AGES (476 AD) ... Dark Ages Petrarch

Dragons .... thats right!, dragons I I I

The Viking invasion(s) (798 AD - 900 AD) .... I I I

Knowledge of Old English .... I History of the English Language - Chart

An awareness of the origin of language itself (PIE) ... I I I

A timeline perspective of the myraid battles fought amoung Celts...Anglo-Saxons...Romans...Vikings (43 AD - 937 AD)

Knowledge of the few historians who wrote about these times ...

Finally, for good measure, a few King Arthur tidbits ... I

What glue holds these ingredients and Beowulf together?

Beowulf was written by an Anglo-Saxon poet.

This famous historical antique was created
3,200 years BEFORE the events cited above
4,500 years ago

Were the Anglo-Saxons the last people to conquer England?


The Normans defeated the Anglo-Saxons in 1066 AD at the the battle of Hastings.

Notwithstanding the Norman conquest, it is the Anglo-Saxons who gave us
our first English literary work:

The Epic poem called .... Beowulf.

Of course, this raises a natural question:

What is an Epic poem?

Here are some definitions:

Epic poem

Epic poem

And here is a list of some Epic poems:

List of Epic poems

A timeline of the peoples that populate England today
is as follows:

  1. The native Celts (550 BC - today) ....
  2. The Romans who stayed (43 - 410 AD) ....
  3. The Anglo-Saxon-Jutes (Northern Germany and Denmark) (440 AD - today) ....
  4. The Vikings (Denmark-Sweden-Norway) (798 AD - today) ....
  5. The Normans (France) (1066 AD - today) ....

Careful, the following is a TRICK question.

Of the groups listed above, which "country" makes up the majority
of today's population in Great Britain.

The majority of British are descended from?



No one knows when Beowulf was written
or who wrote it.

It may have been written as early as 680 AD or
as late as 1000 AD.

Although the author is unknown, it is commonly
accepted that an Anglo-Saxon wrote Beowulf.

Below are answers to questions you may have
about the Anglo-Saxons:

Where did the Anglo-Saxons come from? I

Were the Anglo-Saxons the only barbarians at that time?

When did the Anglo-Saxons arrive in England? I I

Who invited the Anglo-Saxons to England? (Vortigern)

Who are Hengist and Horsa?

When did Old English begin?

Where did the Anglo-Saxons invade?

What territories did the Anglo-Saxons occupy? I

Where did the Anglo-Saxons finally settle?

When was Beowulf written?

What is Bewulf about (highly recommended) ?

Some writers suggest the author of Beowulf
came from Anglo-Saxon Northumbria

Here is some information about Northumbria

Map of Northumbria
Northumbria Brief History
Reference to Northumbria Poet

One of the ironies of Beowulf is that it is
NOT about an Anglo-Saxon warrior.

Rather, it is about a Geat named Beowulf who
travels to Denmark to help a king fight
some dragons.

Where are the Geats from?(southern Sweden)
Geat Kings
Map of Geatland

The name of the Danish king was Hrothgar

Search Hrothgar and Beowulf

and Beowulf defended Hrothgar by
killing two humanoid beasts.

Upon Beowulf's return to his homeland, he was
subsequently killed by a dragon.

Dragons and Beasts of Beowulf

Here is an overview of the plot and characters:

Beowulf Study Guide I I

And remember, each Beowulf translation
will differ due to the translators
interpretation of the Old English wording:

Beowulf Translations

Beowulf (as copied by some Saxon scribes)

Beowulf - Verse Indeterminate Saxon

Beowulf Resources

Beowulf Resources I

You can glean more detail about the
whole Beowulf story here:

Beowulf - in hypertext - Excellent

Beowulf - Francis B. Gummere Translation

Beowulf - Dr. David Breeden Translation

Beowulf - Pace University

When you are ready, try this Beowulf Quiz:

Beowulf Quiz

Approximately 1,700 years before Beowulf
was written Homer wrote the
first Western Literature Epic(S).

Western Literature's 1st Epic(s)

Which begs the question ..... again
What exactly is an ... Epic?

Parent - Contained in Lit Beowulf
Uncle - Early English Writers
Some guy - 600 Years Later