Our First Steps out of Africa - Part A

The Kebaran Culture
(Anatomically Modern Humans (AMH)) ... (origin:southern Levant)

Levant Map

Levant Map

Kebaran Culture

started around 18000 BC ...

but where and WHEN was modern man before that?


Anatomically Modern Humans (AMH) walked out of Africa sometime
between 68,000 - 50,000 BC.

Note:This is a GUESS - not a fact.

Map -- Walking out of Africa -- See the TOP of the Red Sea -- see the BOTTOM of the Red Sea

2nd Map


Future data points may well prove - beyond a reasonable doubt - that AMH's walked out
of Africa ( 1 ) as early as 100,000 BC and ( 2 ) left Africa at the *bottom* of the Red Sea
(the Bab al-Mandab Strait - see map). Lets hold off on this possibilty until you learn the data
points that follow. At the end of this page is a link that talks about this ALTERNATIVE possibility.


What does 50,000 BC mean?
We need a ruler ..... a measuring stick
to help us get a feel for how far back in time we are.

Here are some data points that you may have heard about:

You have undoubtedly heard of the Egyptian Empire.
It kicked in around 3,000 BC.
If you want to argue 4,000 BC -- use that number instead.
The 1st pyramid was built in 2,630 BC.

But we are somewhere in the years 68,000 - 50,000 BC.

You have undoubtedly heard of the Trojan War.
(It was a war between the Greeks and the city of Troy.)
It was fought sometime around 1194–1184 BC.

But we are somewhere in the years 68,000 - 50,000 BC.

Almost everybody has heard of Alexander the Great.
(He conquered most of the known world of his time.)
He lived between 356 to 323 BC.

But we are somewhere in the years 68,000 - 50,000 BC.

The Roman Empire is well known and allegedly began with the building of Rome
by Romulus sometime between 758 and 728 BC,
(The Roman Empire -- as you know it -- began to kick in around 200 BC.)

But we are somewhere in the years 68,000 - 50,000 BC.

What about the Holy Bible? Thats an old book, right?
The 1st books of the Hebrew Bible were written sometime after 1,000 BC.

But we are somewhere in the years 68,000 - 50,000 BC.

Lets try a different approach:

You may have heard of the Neolithic Era?
That's a very old sounding period.
Well, that puppy began around 10,000 BC.

But we are somewhere in the years 68,000 - 50,000 BC.

Farming - using domesticated seed - occurred around 9/8,000 BC.
And the first pots and pans (pottery) didn't show up until 7,000 BC.

And writing - the kind having the grammatical wherewithal - so that you could write:
See Spot Run!
was not invented until 2700/2600 BC by the Sumerians (IRAQ).

But we are somewhere in the years 68,000 - 50,000 BC.

Let's summarize these comparisons.

(1) The Ancient History ordinarily referred to as "Ancient History' is - in comparison -
a very young history.

(2) The Ancient History herein places you at the actual start of
human history and man's journey out of Africa and into
the Levant and Europe.

(3) With respect to this real Ancient History, there are few solid data
points, so, no doubt; some - or all - of what follows will be revised as
we get more data points and/or have a better understanding of the data points we currently have.


Walking out of Africa .....

With respect to that walk .....
here are 3 names to remember.

These names represent 3 of the first stops ....
modern man made - after leaving Africa


What follows -- a list of 3 "walking out of Africa" destination points --
represents an educated GUESS - and not - a solid fact.

The 3 data points are real.

Anatomically modern humans - (AMH) - lived there over 40,000 years ago.
However, they (these data points) might not be DIRECTLY related to walking out of Africa.

The first name is Boker Tachtit, Israel. Modern man stopped there around 47,000 BP.

Boker Tachtit, Israel

Boker Tachtit, Israel

Boker Tachtit, Israel  47280 BP  See page 30

The next name is Ksar Akil, Lebanon

I don't have a date -- but lets call it 46,000 BP
(About 1,000 years after the Boker Tachtit stop-over)

Ksar Akil, Lebanon

Ksar Akil, Lebanon

Dating of beads sets new timeline for early humans

Upper Paleolithic

Beads at Ksar Akil (Lebanon) and Üçağızlı (Turkey)


The following information argues AGAINST my date of 46000 BP
and indicates a date of 42000 BP which is 40000 BC --
if I am understanding the article correctly.

(Note:the term BP means Before Present. The Present being defined as the year 1950 AD)

(Note:to convert a BP term to a BC term -- I am subtracting 2000 years from the BP term --
hence 42000 BP - 2000 = 40000 BC)

Chronology of Ksar Akil (Lebanon) and
Implications for the Colonization of Europe
by Anatomically Modern Humans

Chronology of Ksar Akil

About Dates

The final name is Üçagizli Cave I,Turkey

maybe 45,000 BP
maybe 41,000 BP

Excavations at Üçagizli Cave I, Turkey

Üçagizli Cave, Turkey

Üçagizli Cave, Turkey

Üçagizli Cave, Turkey

... Upper Paleolithic deposits at Üçağızlı Cave is likely between 41,000 and 45,000 years.

Beads at Ksar Akil (Lebanon) and Üçağızlı (Turkey)

All 3 sites on 1 map

All 3 Sites

The Big Picture

The Big Picture - Article

If you can't see the big picture ......

we - Anatomically Modern Humans (AMH)
have just walked out of Africa and up the Levant


Up to this point in time (45000 BP? - 41000 BP?) .....
there are no Anatomically Modern Humans (AMH) in Europe

At 45000/41000? BP, AMH is living just south of the red dot


Homo erectus lived in Dmanisi, Georgia 1.8 million years ago -
but they are not Anatomically Modern Humans (AMH); however,
they do belong to the Homo group - as does AMH.

Homo Group

Homo erectus in Europe

Dmanisi Human: Skull from Georgia Implies All Early Homo Species were One

Dmanisi, Georgia

So please don't get confused between Homo erectus and Anatomically Modern Humans (AMH)

(See Ancient Writers for more links about Homo erectus.
Look in the Year column for 1.8 million to find the correct row)

Finally, please be mindful that Homo erectus
may have been the forerunner of the first genetic Modern Human.
However, I don't know and am uncertain if there is a direct link or not.

Ancient Writers

The 3 stops named above represent examples of the first stops modern man
made after leaving Africa ...


What is my source for listing these sites? That:

Boker Tachtit, Israel.


Ksar Akil, Lebanon


Üçagizli Cave I,Turkey

represent 3 of man's first stop-overs after leaving Africa?


My source is this gentleman who has written a wonderful book
that describes these events on page 113.

(Be sure to view the Map on pages 110-111 which portrays
the complete walk-out of Africa and entry into Europe)

The Making of the Middle Sea by Cyprian Broodbank - copyright 2013

Lets catch our breath.

It seems we have found the Initial Upper Palaeolithic (IUP) entities
that would eventually travel to Europe.

Of course, this is only a GUESS - and not a FACT.

However, lets reread this article:

Chronology of Ksar Akil (Lebanon) and
Implications for the Colonization of Europe
by Anatomically Modern Humans

Its observation(s) seem to be:

(1) From a geographic standpoint it seems obvious that
AMH travelled through the Levant and eventually reached Europe

(2) Not withstanding how obvious it looks - at the present time - we
DO NOT have ANY hard data to support this conclusion.

(3) In part the problem seems to be the dates of the data that we have
from Europe. The dates from Europe are earlier or parallel
to the dates from the Levant. How could that be?

The earliest evidence
for anatomically modern humans
in northwestern Europe

Now what?
We will have to wait for more data points and see where the data takes us.

On the other hand, the good news is we have several hard facts:

(1) Europeans (actually ALL AMH living outside of Africa) came from Africa
i.e. here is a summary of their genetic trail ...

Human Origins

(2) We DO HAVE 3 hard points in the Levant for AMH's.
Namely, the 3 sites we have been talking about.

If current RC Dating places them at 42000 BP (40000 BC) then thats our
starting point - at least for the moment.

(3) If 1 data point is in Israel and another data point is in Turkey -
then obviously AMH's moved around.

(4) However, there is an elephant in the room. Here it is:

Last Glacial Maximum

To what extent, if any, it may have contaminated data I cannot evaluate.
Especially with respect to the dating of European data.

But any earnest jurist - (you) - would want to be aware of this event.

(5) At this moment - you and I - are at the forefront of our knowledge with respect to:

AMH's travel out of Africa -
AMH's travel up the Levant -
and AMH's incursion into Europe. But How and When he got there (Europe) is not clear and
requires more data points.

Moving forward ... here is some information about Europe

The earliest modern humans
in Europe

Haplogroup Timeline


The chart above indicates the Neanderthals went extinct
about 24000 years ago.

Current science now thinks they went extinct
about 50000 years ago. (Their last stronghold was in Spain)

Neanderthal Extinction

AMH and Neanderthals


If you are curious about the Neanderthals and when they arrived
in Europe here is a *very incomplete* web page that will jump-start you with respect to that question


Look for the column heading Neanderthals. As you will discover, estimates for
when the Neanderthals got to Europe are all over the map (time-wise).

I'm hanging with 330,000 BC - but you know how to think for yourself.

Has it occurred to you yet?

If the Neanderthals arrived in Europe 330,000 years ago or 220,000 years ago or
whatever - WHEN did they leave Africa?

And for that matter - WHEN did they come
into being?

These questions are the stuff of Great Book Reports!


Why bother with these first 3 stop-overs?

In my case, I have found my Sumerian Writers.
In another 44,000 years they will settle in southern IRAQ
and invent writing and literature. (i.e. the Sumerians)

ETCSL: full catalogue of Sumerian literary compositions

A flood will sweep over the ....

The words the gudu priest in the text above
go back as far as the Sumerian Early Dynastic IIIb period:

gudug [PRIEST]

The Sumerian IIIb period was between 2450 - 2350 BC and by this time
writing was fully established by the Sumerians.

The Flood Story (Tablet #11) in the Epic of Gilgamesh goes back as
far as the UR IIII period which approximates 2100 - 2000 BC.

Gilgamesh flood myth

Gilgamesh flood myth

And the Flood Story in the first 5 books of the Jewish Bible goes back
as far as somewhere between 1000 - 600 BC. In other words, its very young.

What is the common link between these 3 flood stories.
I am guessing the common link is Scribal Schools.

After the Sumerians invented writing - Scribal Schools became the
IPhone of their day.


Finally, what haplogroup are the people that stopped in
Israel, Lebanon, and Turkey?

Are they descended from haplogroup CT-M168 (like we all are - every one of us)
--or-- are they the ORIGINAL CT-M168?

Human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup

I don't know.
(But - maybe - you will figure it out)

This might help ....

If you intend to pursue this, this web page will jump-start your research into this .....

Mesopotamian Chronology

Lastly, below is a link that nicely summarizes some of the data we have
gathered about the Hominid Species. It includes data about AMH.

Synopsis of the Paleolithic Southwestern Asia ....

Our First Steps out of Africa - Part B

Please see the maps below
and look towards the bottom of the Red Sea

Bab al-Mandab Strait

Bab al-Mandab Strait

Jebel Faya - (displayed as J. Faya on the map)

The thinking is that modern man left Africa via Arabia and not Egypt. Here are some links
that explore that possibility.

Tools Indicate Earlier Migration from Africa to Arabia

Humans left Africa earlier, took detour: Archeologists

Scientists confirm early humans were from Africa but their route out was via Arabia not Egypt

Buried Saharan Rivers May Have Led Humans Out of Africa

I don't have enough information on this to comment further.

But if you reread our favorite article - a 3rd time - you will discover that they talk
about this second passageway out of Africa.

In fact - this second passageway - might well be the first way
we left Africa.

Chronology of Ksar Akil (Lebanon) and
Implications for the Colonization of Europe
by Anatomically Modern Humans

This subject matter is ALSO the stuff of great Book Reports

To jump-start you, here is the Big Picture ....

The Big Picture - (read the footnotes at the bottom)

I have saved the best for last.

Can we retire the 60,000-year old coastal Out of Africa?

Additional Links:

Comparison of Boker Tachtit and Stránská skála MP/UP Transitional Industries

Chronology of Ksar Akil (Lebanon) and Implications for the Colonization of Europe by Anatomically Modern Humans

Tool Standardization in the Middle and Upper Palaeolithic:a Closer Look


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